Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2015 | September-December | Volume 9 | Issue 3

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M Andiappan, FJ Hughes, S Dunne, W Gao, ANA Donaldson

Adjusting the Oral Health Related Quality of Life Measure (Using Ohip-14) for Floor and Ceiling Effects

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:99 - 104]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-99  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



The influence of floor (lowest) and ceiling (highest) effects on the outcome measure is of serious concern particularly when the outcome is measured using Likert scales. Conventional regression methods yield biased results and hence tobit regression is to be used to adjust for these effects. This paper is an attempt to use tobit regression in finding the predictors of oral health related quality of life after adjusting for floor and ceiling effects.


A sample of 360 participants were asked to self asses their oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) using Oral Health impact profile with 14 items which forms the data for this study. Apart from descriptive statistics, Ordinary Least squares regression and tobit regression were used to find the significant predictors of OHRQoL and the results of both methods were compared.


The sample comprised of 41.1% men and 58.9% women. Majority of the participants (68.3%) were whites. The average item difficulty was 0.4 and the average item easiness was 0.03. The floor and ceiling values for the composite scores were 14 and 56 respectively. Age and gender were not statistically significant both in Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and Tobit regression. Full time employment, student and retired have significantly lower scores in OLS but only retired had significantly lower scores in the tobit model.


Tobit model, after adjusting for floor and ceiling effect, gives higher values for the predictors and the OLS model underestimates the effects of predictors on OHIP scores.



S Adaki, A Karagir, K Shah, K Marathe

Assessment Of Effectiveness Of 'Anti-Tobacco Compaign’ In Sangli District Of Maharastra, India - An Epidemiological Survey

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:105 - 107]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-105  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



India has highest rates of oral cancer in the world and rates are still increasing. Oral cancer accounts for one-third of the total cancer cases and 90% of the patients are tobacco chewers. The Govt. of India initiated and enacted the national tobacco-control legislation namely, “The Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003”; on 18 May, 2003. Still there is persistence of more number of people with tobacco habits. So, an epidemiological survey for Sangli district was conducted in Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Dental College and Hospital to know the effectiveness of 'Anti - tobacco campaign’

Materials & Methods Of Survey

A questionnaire based survey was conducted among tobacco consumers in all age groups for the period of one year. The information was collected from the tobacco consumers and filled up by investigators on the pre-structured pre-tested proforma consisting of questions (QUESTIONNAIRE) related with the identification data, age, sex, occupation, marital status, education, socioeconomic status, type, source & reason of tobacco use, awareness about health hazards due to tobacco use and its source of information.


Information was collected from 573 patients, among them 91.4% were male, 85.1% consumed in smokeless form, 81.3% were literate, 78.8% knew about ill effects of tobacco, 49.1% people had information about anti-tobacco programmes.


In the present study only 49.1% people know about the anti-tobacco campaign among them 86% are literates and 40-60 and above 60 years age group of people are less aware of such programs. So campaign should be designed in such a way that more number of adults, illiterates and literates know about ill-effects of tobacco and also to provide guidance to quit the tobacco.



N Tabassum, S Ahmed, M Al-abdulwaheed, H Al-hammad, E Al-habbib, Z Al-khudaimi, S Al-megran, A Al-basheer

Dental Pain Perception In Different Genders: Pscychological Evaluation And Pain Control Strategy

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:108 - 114]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-108  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



This study aims at evaluation and discussion of differences in pain perception, anxiety and behavior of male and female dental patients and highlight its significance in treatment planning and management, in the clinical set ups in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia.

Material and methods

A comparative cohort study was carried out in 880 patients from various dental clinics in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. They were given a 23-question questionnaire based on extended DFAS(dental fear and avoidance scale) and DAS(dental anxiety scale). The variables included brief demographic data, medical history, pscychological assessment, pain catastrophe, previous dental experiences and avoidance of dental treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the categorized study and outcome variables in male and female patients and comparing the differences in pscychology and pain perception.

Results and conclusion

Female subjects reported with less pain and phobiafor dental treatment compared to male subjects.91.6% femalesresponded positively for DFAS-1 score(not afraid) against 45.8% of male subjects and 50.6%male subjects agreed that they are terrified of dental pain against 25.7% female subjects for DFAS score 4(terrified of dental pain),which is statistically highly significant.



AS Dodamani, MR Khairnar, GN Karibasappa, RG Naik, MA Deshmukh

Knowledge, Attitude And Behavior Towards Preventive Dentistry Among Health Care Students In Dhule City

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:115 - 119]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-115  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Dental student's knowledge, attitude and behavior towards prevention are important, since they have exceptionally important roles in influencing their patient's ability to take care of their teeth. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude and behavior of health care professional students towards preventive dentistry in Dhule city.


A cross sectional study was conducted among undergraduate students of Dental, Medical, Pharmacy, Ayurvedic and Nursing faculty in Dhule city. A total of 299 students (93 dental students, 90 medical students, 54 ayurvedic students, 37 pharmacy students and 25 nursing students)were individually asked to complete apretested ques tionnaire. The questionnaire requested information on student's demographic and professional characteristics and their knowledge, attitude and behavior towards preventive dental care. Chi square test was used to analyzethe data.


The knowledge regarding preventive dentistry was highest among dental students (83% having good knowl edge) with Ayurvedic(BAMS) undergraduate students having least knowledge (59% showing poor knowledge). Attitude and behavior towards preventive dentistry was favorable among all health care professional students (66% showing good attitude and 60% showing favorable behavior).


The findings of this study have shown that the participants had conducive oral health behavior, sufficient knowledgeand positive attitude and had positive beliefs regarding dental treatment.



Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, S Srinidhi, S Vaishnavi, P Shalini, V Indra Priyadarshni

Dentition Status, Periodontal Status, Dentofacial Anomalies and Treatment Needs Among Differently Abled Children in Chennai

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:120 - 125]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-120  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Oral health is an important aspect of health for all children, and is more important for children with special health needs.


The study was done to assess the dentition status, periodontal status, dentofacial anomalies and treatment needs of differently abled children attending special schools in Chennai.


A cross sectional study was conducted among 6 - 18 year old hearing and speech impaired children and visually impaired children in Chennai. A cluster sampling methodology was followed for the selection of study subjects. The final sample size for the study was 624 hearing and speech impaired children and 506 visually impaired children. The data was collected using WHO Assessment Form (WHO 1997) modified. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson chi-square test and Student t test.


Overall mean dmft/DMFT among differently abled children was (0.58+1.46)/ (0.50+0.93). Dental caries experience was more among hearing and speech impaired children with mean dmft/DMFT being (0.67+1.44) / (0.52+0.95) and it was statistically significant(P<0.05) with visually impaired children in case of dmft. Overall mean DAI was (22.3+5.4)) and malocclusion was predominant among visually impaired children compared to hearing and speech impaired children and it was statistically significant (P<0.001) The periodontal conditions were poorer among visually impaired children with most of them having calculus and it was statistically significant (P<0.05) compared to hearing and speech impaired children. Traumatic injuries were seen more among visually impaired children compared to hearing and speech impaired children and it was statistically very highly significant (P<0.001). Hearing and speech impaired children needed more treatment than the visually impaired children with majority of them needing restorations.


It can be concluded from the study that even though the oral health status and treatment needs of differently abled children is not alarming, a prevention based intervention program directed especially towards dental caries and periodontal health is recommended for these special groups for a better productive life in future.



Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, L Leelavathi

Erosive Potential Of Various Commercially Available Lollipops

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:126 - 131]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-126  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



• To measure pH and neutralisable acidity of lollipops. • To determine salivary pH and salivary secretion.


Chocolate, strawberry and mango flavoured lollipops were selected based on differences in pH and neutralisable capacity and tested on 10 healthy volunteers. Each experimental session included collection of unstimulated saliva, stimulated saliva and post-stimulated saliva. Saliva secretion rates were determined gravimetrically and the salivary pH was measured by electronic pH meter.


The pH of chocolate, strawberry and mango flavoured lollipops were 5.2, 3.8 and 2.6 respectively. The nuetralisable acidity of chocolate, strawberry and mango flavoured lollipop were 500 μl, 2600 μl and 3300 μl respectively. All lollipops stimulated salivary flow. Strawberry and mango flavoured lollipops induced a significant decrease of the salivary pH at stimulated 5 minutes (p value < 0.05).


Strawberry and mango flavoured lollipops have mild erosive potential. Chocolate flavoured lollipops seem to have no erosive potential.



P Bansal, S Kirti, N Khuller, A Bhatia, A Mehta

Glucometer As A Chairside Diagnostic Device To Assess Blood Glucose In Chronic Periodontitis Patients With And Without Diabetes

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:132 - 137]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-132  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Diabetes and periodontal health status have long been considered to be biologically linked. It is essential for a dental surgeon or a periodontist to detect blood glucose level for patients whose signs and symptoms are suggestive of diabetes. Self monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in blood. The present study was designed to check the validity of glucometer as a chairside diagnostic device in chronic periodontitis patients with and without diabetes. The study included 45 patients divided into three groups (15 chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes mellitus, 15 chronic periodontitis patients without diabetes mellitus and 15 healthy patients). Samples were taken from gingival crevicular, gingival capillary, finger prick blood and values were compared with standardized venous blood sample results. The results of study show a strong correlation between blood sugar values of gingival crevicular blood with laboratory venous blood sugar than other parameters.



MT Van Harten, HP Lawrence, C Quiñonez, D Goodman

Predictors Of Dental Disease Among Youth Incarcerated At A Toronto-Area Youth Centre

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:11] [Pages No:138 - 148]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-138  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



To determine the oral health status of youth in a closed-custody facility in a large Canadian centre


A cross-sectional study of youth incarcerated ata Toronto-area facility was conducted from September 2010 till July 2011. Participants completed a survey on social, correctional and oral health histories, and underwent oral examination.


Of 101adolescent participants, 81.2% had permanent teeth affected by tooth decay. In this group, an average of 4.39 teeth were affected and. the proportion of decayed teeth was 0.51. Race, custody history and case status were predictors of poor oral health.


By quantifying the need for oral health services and by identifying variables associated with greater dental disease, these findings may assist health care providers in youth correctional facilities with their program planning for their high-needs wards.



A Kumar, V Kumar, M Goel, A Hooda, A Dahiya

Trigeminal Neuralgia: The New Medicinal Treatment Modalities

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:149 - 152]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-149  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Trigeminal neuralgia has been considered as a painful condition since long time. Pain is perceived in one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve, mostly unilaterally. Pain is shooting, lancinating, sharp, agonizing and described as an electric shock. Usually lasts seconds to minutes with repetitive bursts every few seconds. The patient is symptom-free between the attacks. Common evidence can be the trigger effect of some routinely actions involving territories innervated by the affected root, such as speaking, swallowing, chewing, brushing the teeth, or sensitive stimuli applied in these regions like simple light touch, cold, or an air blow. Medicinal therapy is the main stay of treatment in trigeminal neuralgia. This review focuses on the drug therapy in neuralgic patients.



A Lyssikatos

Compound Odontoma - A Representative Case Report

[Year:2015] [Month:September-December] [Volume:9] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:153 - 154]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-9-3-153  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


A compound odontoma is the most common form of odontogenic odontomas and is typically found in the maxillary anterior region. This paper describes a case diagnosed in a 41 year old healthy male patient. Two treatment options were presented to the patient including a referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for an evaluation or periodic monitoring of the odontoma.


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