Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2013 | January-April | Volume 7 | Issue 1

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S Bala, A Narwal

Awareness of Bio-medical Waste Management Among Dental College and Hospital Employees-A Panoramic View

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:1 - 7]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-1  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The Bio-medical waste (Management and handling) Rules 1988 lay down clear methods for disposal of bio-medical waste, defined as “any waste generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities used in the production or testing of biologicals.”

The current scenario in the country reveals partial or no segregation at the time of generation, which at times is done by the contractors, or the rag pickers. However, the improper practice of segregation at the site of origin has been observed which causes mixing of infectious and non-infectious waste. A study was therefore, conducted to understand the awareness amongst the employees as regards to Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) Management practices, policies and to assess their attitude towards it, in a premier tertiary level research and referral Institute in Haryana (India).



Z Singh, Senthilvel

A Study of Dental Morbidity Among Fishermen Community in Rural Tamilnadu

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:8 - 11]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-8  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Very few data are available on the oral health condition among fisherfolk in rural areas of India. The external factors like diet, quality of dental hygiene and environmental factors have an effect on caries occurrence. The aim of the study was to assess the dental morbidity among fishermen community.

Materials and methods

A community based observational study was done among the fishermen community. Descriptive statistics, percentages and Chi square methods were used for analysis. p value <0.05 has been taken as statistically significant.

Results and conclusion

Majority of patients had sought treatment for symptomatic caries and younger age group patients sought treatment more than older age group. Education level and social class also reflected the morbidity status of the community. Findings have implications to develop strategies to increase the public awareness of oral hygiene in rural community.



P Gulati, S Dhingra, S Chand, Swatika

Estimating the pH of Commercially Available Dentifrices and Evaluating its Effect on Salivary pH After Brushing

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:12 - 16]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-12  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



The purpose of the study was to estimate the pH of commercially available dentifrices and evaluating its effect on salivary pH after brushing

Material and Methods

60 study subjects were selected and were divided into 12 groups (each group comprises of 5 subjects). The salivary pH was directly estimated using the digital pH meter calibrated using buffers of pH 4, 7 and 22. Paired t test was used to compare the changes in the mean salivary pH after brushing in each group. One way ANOVA and Tukey's test was used to compare the changes in mean salivary pH after brushing between different groups.


pH of different types of commercially available dentifrices which were used in the study was found to be 8.4, 7.9, 7.9, 6.7, 7.2, 8.3, 8.4, 7.1, 6.5, 5.6, 8.2 and 6.5 respectively. Difference in mean salivary pH after brushing was found to be statistically significant for Colgate, Neem active group, Vicco, Triguard, Colgate active salt, Dabur meswak, Dabur babool, Close-up active gel, RA Thermoseal, Dabur lal dant manjan, Colgate powder groups. Mean salivary pH (before and after brushing) between study groups showed a statistically significant difference.


The pH of saliva increases after brushing in each commercially available dentifrice group.



G Manjunath, NN Kumar

Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Among School Teachers in Kurnool – Andhra Pradesh

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:17 - 23]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-17  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Teacher plays pivotal role in any educational system and if they are well educated, intellectually alive and take keen interest in their job, then only success is ensured. Present study was done with an aim to know the knowledge, attitude and practices among school teachers regarding oral health.


Closed ended questionnaire was filled by 500 school teachers chosen by stratified random sampling.


Response rate is 100 % with 250 school teachers from Govt and privates schools. No statistical significant results were found based on age, sex, type of school and income when it comes to knowledge and attitude, but statistical significance was found based on income (p<0.05) when compared with behavior of school teachers with better practices on oral health seen as the monthly income increases.


Overall oral health knowledge attitude and behavior is poor among school teachers



R Gupta, K Dhanker, NA Ingle, N Kaur

Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Inmates in District Jail of Mathura City – A Cross Sectional Study

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:9] [Pages No:24 - 32]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-24  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of inmates of, District Jail Mathura.


A cross sectional study was carried out on the inmates (N=870) in the district jail of Mathura. Proforma related to general demographic information was filled by the examiner and the subjects were clinically examined using WHO 1997 “Oral Health Assessment Form


This study revealed that 92.5% of the inmates were male. 53.8% never visited the dentist & 87% never received any type of dental care during imprisonment. Prevalence of pro-mucosal lesion was 59.8%. Inmates had poor periodontal conditions and 79% inmates had dental caries with mean DMFT of 4.79.


Periodontal disease, mucosal lesions and dental caries are major public health problem among the inmates, which require special attention and efforts from government and other organizations to meet their treatment needs.



KC Oswal

Oral Hygiene Practice Among Patients Visiting Terna Dental College

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:33 - 36]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-33  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



To assess the knowledge, attitude and awareness related to oral health and associated habits among the patients visiting Terna Dental College (Mumbai).


A cross sectional survey was done among 218 randomly selected patients. The survey captured the demographics, oral hygiene practice, tobacco habits of all the participants.


Most of the participants use toothbrush and toothpaste. 10% of the patients still use mishri. The knowledge about the correct brushing technique and frequency of changing the brush was poor. 76% of the participants accessed the dental health care only if there is pain. The awareness about the harmful effect of passive smoking and the tobacco control laws was very poor.


Overall the knowledge, attitude and practices of participants living in this area are not very good. There needs to be a strong, effective oral health promotion campaigns’ targeting all the population and the very high risk groups.



A Singh, HP Bhatia, H Grover

The Study of Cariogenicity of Raw Sugarcane in 12-year-old Children in Punjab, India

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:37 - 43]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-37  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



The purpose of the present study was to investigate further the hypothesis that children who reside in a sugarcane growing region have a lower caries experience than those residing in an otherwise comparable environment outside of the sugarcane growing region.


A total of 404 Children aged 12 years were selected from government run schools in both sugarcane region which was close to the town of Mehta and non-sugarcane region which was close to attari in Amritsar district in the state of Punjab, India, and were given consent to participate in the survey. Data on the eating habits of the children were obtained by questionnaire and caries experience was determined during a clinical examination. The drinking water in both regions contained fluoride at less than 0.5 ppm.


The mean DMFT scores for the sugarcane and non-sugarcane groups were 0.41 and 0.70, respectively (p<0.002). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis of risk factors for a caries experience, residence area alone was the sole significant predictor of experiencing one or more DMFT. Children residing in the sugarcane growing region were 49% less likely to have decayed teeth (OR=0.51; 95%CI= 0.33, 0.78).


The null hypothesis is rejected; the results of this study support the hypothesis that the chewing of raw sugarcane is associated with reduced dental caries experience.



KD Prasad, H Alva

Use of Frenum in Determining the Original Vertical Position of Teeth

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:44 - 46]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-44  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



To determine the functional position of labial, lingual and buccal frenii with the corresponding central incisor, premolar or molars in natural dentition.

Materials and method

20 dentate subjects between 20-40years of age were selected for the study. Maxillary and mandibular impressions were made and the distance from anterior attachment of frenum to the cusp tip of the corresponding tooth was measured.


The mean distance between the anterior attachment of labial frenum to the incisal edge of incisor was 12.25mm, the mean distance between the anterior attachment of buccal frenum of right side to cusp tip of corresponding teeth was 12.75mm and left side was 12.8mm and the mean distance between the anterior attachment of lingual frenum to incisal edge of incisor was 15.4mm. The coefficient of variation were 14.7%, 16.65%, 15.75% and 6.4% respectively.


The distance between the anterior attachment of the frenum to the cusp tips/incisal edges can be used as a pre-extraction record for determining the original vertical position of teeth.



E Gibson, JL Riley

Self-care Behaviors for Orofacial Pain Among Different Racial/Ethnic Groups: Influences of Acculturation and Socioeconomic Status

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:10] [Pages No:47 - 56]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-47  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



The aim of this study was to test the influence of acculturation and socioeconomic status on orofacial pain self-care across race/ethnicity stratified by sex among South Florida residents, using a sample of residents of Miami-Dade and Broward counties in Florida.


This study reports data on respondents who self-endorsed their race and ethnicity as Hispanic, non-Hispanic White, or non-Hispanic Black and reported tooth pain (n=1,767) or jaw joint/face pain (n=1,199). Acculturation was associated with self-care use for pain among Whites and Hispanics. Socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with several self-care behaviors and was most predictive among White women. Acculturation towards other ethnic groups led to differential self-care use dependent on the type of self-care, pain condition, and ethnicity.


Black and Hispanic women were greater users of self-care for orofacial pain than other sex/ethnicities.


The associations between SES and self-care were stronger in White women than in Black and Hispanic women.



P Batra

Articulator and Facebow: Review of Literature and History of Articulators

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:57 - 63]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-57  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Articulators and facebows are the integral part of any branch of prosthodontics. We all have seen, the constant innovation, expansion and evolution of these two important instruments through the years. The core aim of this article is to bring in light, the way these instruments were used around more than five decades back till recent times as well as theories and principles related to their uses are also changing as the passes. This review has shown conclusions of many researchers on so many concepts like superiority of arcon articulator over non-arcon articulators, survey of their use in dental school/ colleges, various techniques of recording jaw movements like transographic, stereographic, axiographic, digital & more and importance of terminal hinge axis. Efforts were made and still going on to record the accurate jaw movements in order to make a prosthesis which functions harmoniously and also preserve the remaining tissues, which is a big aim of prosthodontics.



NS Yadav, A Singh, V Saxena, V Juneja, V Tiwari, B Santha

Saliva: A Miraculous Biofluid for Early Detection of Disease

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:64 - 68]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-64  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Saliva, a multi constituent oral fluid has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva based diagnostics, two requisites must be fulfilled as discovering biomarker for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva and advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers through persistent development of technologies with collective efforts over several years. Saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early diagnosis of disease and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an impression of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the innovation of salivary biomarkers and development of salivary diagnostics in the future.



R Bains, K Verma, K Loomba, VK Bains, A Loomba

Mandibular First Molar with Middle Distal Canal: A Case Report

[Year:2013] [Month:January-April] [Volume:7] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:69 - 71]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-7-1-69  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Limited data reports the occurrence of three or more canals in distal roots of mandibular first permanent molars. This paper presents and discusses a clinical report of root canal therapy in a permanent mandibular first molar and empahasises on the utilisation of magnification for the assessment, and acquaintance of the possible canal configuration, alongwith the management of middle distal canal of permanent mandibular first molar.


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