Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2023 | September-December | Volume 17 | Issue 3

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Sumaiyya Saleem, Swetha Raveendran Kalyani, Vishnu Rekha Chamarthi, Dhanraj Kalaivanan, Sai Sarath Kumar Kothimbakkam, Santhosh Priya Appiya Krishnan Ramnath Babu

Evaluation of Level of Awareness and Perception among Sports Instructors Regarding Usage of Mouthguards in South Chennai Region: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:17] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:81 - 84]

Keywords: Contact sports, Dental trauma, Mouthguards, Prevention, Sports instructors

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0175  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: About 19–36% of orofacial trauma are sports-related injuries which is a growing concern that requires immediate attention. The present study aimed to evaluate the level of awareness and perception of sports instructors regarding mouthguard usage in the South Chennai region. Materials and methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted by means of a bilingual questionnaire which was distributed to the sports instructors individually by the investigator (hand in hand) and includes information on demographics, awareness, and perception regarding the usage of mouthguards. Results: A p-value below 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Nonparametric test of Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to analyze the continuous independent variable and the dependent variables. There were statistically significant differences seen in the awareness level of mouthguards between the kinds of sports they teach. Similarly, those participants who were already aware of mouthguards also showed significant differences in their awareness level of mouthguards. Conclusion: It could be concluded from the findings of a present survey that the majority of sports instructors in the South Chennai region are aware of mouthguards but do not recommend their usage at all times.

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Sai Naga Madhuri Ambati, Kamakshi Kalla

Dental Neglect in Pediatric Population—A Critical Issue Necessitating Revolutionary Solution Strategies: Assessment by Tools Like Dental Caries, Prostheses and Restorations in Primary Teeth

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:17] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:85 - 89]

Keywords: Awareness, Caries, Cross-sectional study, Dental neglect, Oral health, Oral neglect, Parents, Prevalence, Primary teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0174  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Child dental neglect is a critical issue that often goes unreported. Compromised oral hygiene and recurrent oral diseases reduce quality of life and create a dread of the dentist in children. The aim of the study is to determine dental neglect in primary teeth of children, so as to increase awareness about the importance of oral health and primary dentition. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted on a study sample of 3,324 children from 8 to 12 years. Intraoral camera was used to carry out the clinical examination by trained dental professionals. Data were compiled and analyzed. Results: Among 3,324 subjects, 945 (28.43%) children were found to have existing dental issues. Out of 1,622 male subjects, 479 (29.53%) were affected and among 1,702 female subjects, 466 (27.38%) were affected. Conclusion: Dental neglect is an alarming issue that needs to be recognized by healthcare professionals as well as parents. Given its high prevalence and detrimental effects, the necessity of awareness measures regarding primary teeth can be ascertained. Therefore, dental neglect should be further researched in larger population groups.

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Original Article

Ambar Khan, Basavaraj Patthi, Ashish Singla, Ravneet Malhi, Babita Verma, Divyangi Goel

Prevalence of Malocclusion and Its Impact on Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) among 12–15-year-old School-going Children of Modinagar, Ghaziabad

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:17] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:90 - 96]

Keywords: Malocclusion, Oral health, Orthodontic treatment need, Quality of Life, School children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0179  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Malocclusion is known to be the second most common oral disorder in children and young adults, just next to dental caries. It has a profound impact on the physical, social, and psychological well-being of individuals. The various public health advances have led to better treatment and cures for the existing diseases and also delayed mortality. Thus, it was insightful for those who measure health outcomes to go about assessing the population's health not only based on saving lives but also in terms of quality of life. Aim: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and its impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among 12–15-year-old school-going children in Modinagar, Ghaziabad. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was carried out and included a total of 900 children, aged 12–15 years from 60 schools in Modinagar, Ghaziabad. The data was analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 software package. Chi-square test was used to measure the prevalence of malocclusion and the association between the mean of oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) dimensions. Independent Sample t-test was used to compare the difference in means for the OHIP-14 dimensions. The p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the present study, the prevalence of malocclusion was calculated to be 28.89% in the population of 12 to 15-year-old school-going children of Modinagar. The mean dental aesthetic index (DAI) score was determined to be 24.23 ± 6.07 and no significant difference was found between the children of the Government and the Private schools. The study demonstrated that the children with malocclusion experienced a significant impact on their OHRQoL. The overall OHRQoL was shown to have a positive correlation with the increase in the severity of malocclusion in the children. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicated a high prevalence of malocclusion in the 12–15-year-old school-going children of Modinagar. The study concluded that malocclusion has a significant impact on the OHRQoL of school children. The findings of the study highlighted the need for oral health education and good oral health maintenance among school children. Thus, interceptive programs need to be planned and the present baseline data can be employed for future follow-up and evaluative research.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Samuel Tobi Tundealao, Deborah Tolulope Odeyemi, Titilayomi Victoria Faulkner, Blessing Oluwabusayo Ikubaje, Tolulope Jesutofunmi Titiloye, Mary Ebelechukwu Osuh

Tobacco Use and Oral Health Status: A Cross-sectional Study among Commercial Motorcycle Riders in a Suburban Community in Nigeria

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:17] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:97 - 101]

Keywords: Dental, Motorcycle, Oral health, Riding, Smoking, Tobacco

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0172  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: This study profiled the tobacco use habits among a vulnerable population, commercial motorcycle riders in Nigeria and assessed the association with their oral health status as a piece of vital information to facilitate the planning of a context-appropriate cessation program for this population. Materials and methods: The study design was cross-sectional analytical. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 255 participants. Oral status was assessed with the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), community periodontal index and treatment needs (CPITN), and gingival index. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the participants’ demographic, riding, and tobacco use behavior. Chi-square test was used to compare oral health status between the current and non-smokers. Multivariable binomial logistic regression was used to assess the oral health status associated with smoking while adjusting for demographic factors. Analysis of data was done using STATA version 17.0/SE. Statistics were done at p < 0.05 significance level. Results: About 24.7% of the commercial motorcyclists were current smokers. After controlling for age and level of education, commercial motorcyclists who are current smokers are more likely to have worse CPITN scores (aOR = 3.45, p < 0.001), have mild gingivitis (aOR = 3.07, p < 0.01), have poor oral hygiene (aOR = 2.29, p < 0.01), and have extrinsic teeth discoloration (aOR = 6.12, p < 0.001) compared with non-current smokers. Conclusion: Motorcycle riders who currently smoke have worse oral health than those who do not smoke. As a result, smoking cessation interventions should target this population in order to improve their oral health.

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CASE REPORT

Deeksha D Pai, Vandana Kangowkar Vijayapremakumar, Shobha Prakash

Gingivectomy for Surgical Exposure of Canine for Orthodontic Correction: A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:17] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:102 - 104]

Keywords: Case report, Esthetics, Gingivectomy, Orthodontic treatment need

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0173  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this article is to provide an idea for interdisciplinary approach for surgical management of enlarged gingival tissue for orthodontic correction. Methodology: A 21-year-old male patient referred to the Department of Periodontics for surgical correction and orthodontic treatment exposure of his palatally placed upper left front tooth. Surgical approach was carried out using external bevel gingivectomy technique using no. 12 blade. Results: One week and 1 month revaluation of the patient revealed satisfactory results and healing of the surgical site with complete exposure of the crown on buccal aspect. Conclusion: A collaborative approach between orthodontist and periodontist at the appropriate time is an important key for minimal visit and better periodontal result. Periodontal health is best restored without postsurgical complications in an orthodontic case if intervened at the right time.

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View Point

Nada Hashim, Muhammed Mustahsen Rahman, Bakri Gobara

Understanding Periodontics Career and the Interrelationship of Periodontics with Other Dental Specialties

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:17] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:105 - 108]

Keywords: Career, Endodontics, Interrelationship, Obstacles, Oral surgery, Orthodontics, Pediatric dentistry, Periodontics, Prosthodontics, Specialty

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0171  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

A wide range of therapeutic techniques, from conventional to cutting-edge, and intricate treatment planning define the dynamic field of periodontics. Periodontics is a distinct area of dentistry that enables successful implant-based tooth replacement in addition to tooth preservation. Although the field of periodontics has a bright and exciting future, significant work and challenges are anticipated to be encountered. A strong career plan is essential since it may serve as a guide for the future. Like every other profession, periodontics has its share of complicated driving forces. The goal of this article is to offer an overview of the periodontics specialty and its link to other branches of dentistry.

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Kharidhi Laxman Vandana, Deeksha D Pai, Jayashree M

Nutrition and Periodontium

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:17] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:109 - 115]

Keywords: Antioxidant, Diseases, Nutrition, Periodontal, Systemic health, Vitamin

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0177  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: With few literature providing a detailed knowledge of the role of nutrition on periodontal tissue, we aimed to provide an insight for the dentists on how nutrition impacts general and oral health and how dental treatment can impact the nutritional status of the patient. Background: For human growth, development, and preservation of health, nutrition is crucial. The relation of oral and general health has been well known and well-studied in the past years. Review results: Also, this review article explains how nutrition is linked to biofilm, host nutrition and immunity in periodontal disease, effects of nutrition on the immune response, role of nutrients in the wound-healing process. We have also explained the necessary periodontal screening parameters, the role of each nutritional aspect that affects periodontal tissues along with an emphasis on the newer concepts. Conclusion: Nutrition plays an integral aspect that influences oral as well as periodontal health directly or indirectly. Clinical significance: An in-depth knowledge of the influence of nutrition on periodontal aspect is a must for all dental professionals for a healthy clinical practice.

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BRIEF RESEARCH COMMUNICATION

Suboda Gnanarathne, Sanjeewani Fonseka, Supun S Manathunga, Ruwan Jayasinghe, Samadara Siriwardane

Comparison of the Effectiveness and Safety of Hydroxychloroquine and Methotrexate in the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Oral Lichen Planus: A Pilot Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:17] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:116 - 120]

Keywords: Hydroxychloroquine, Methotrexate, Oral lichen planus, Randomized clinical trial

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0178  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and the background: Lichen planus (LP) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disorder. Oral lichen planus (OLP) affects the mucous membranes of the mouth. Mainstay of treatment is steroids. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and methotrexate (MTX) with standard treatment (systemic steroids) in the treatment of moderate-to-severe OLP. Materials and methods: The study was conducted as a pilot study of a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, comparison trial assessing the efficacy and safety of systemic steroids (arm A), hydroxychloroquine (arm B), and methotrexate (arm C) in the treatment of moderate-to-severe OLP. Outcome measures were Guy's oral disease severity scoring system (Guy's ODSS) and chronic oral mucosal diseases questionnaire (COMD). Results: Thirty patients between the ages 18 and 60 years with moderate-to-severe OLP completed the study. The reduction of the pain, site, activity, and total score of Guy's ODSS were statistically significant in arm C whereas pain, activity and total score of Guy's ODSS were statistically significant in arm A. Conclusion: This study showed MTX was equally effective as standard treatment (systemic steroid) in the treatment of moderate-to-severe OLP. Therefore, it can be used in place of steroids to minimize the adverse effects of long-term systemic steroids. To see the difference between three arms, larger sample size is needed. Clinical significance: Methotrexate could be considered as an effective treatment for moderate-to-severe OLP without having adverse effects of long-term systemic steroids.

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MEDICAL EDUCATION/CME

Sheetal S Sanikop, Sujata M Byahatti

Implementation of Tobacco Cessation Program for Dental Undergraduates in their Curriculum: The Need and Suggested Plan

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:17] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:121 - 125]

Keywords: Cessation, Curriculum, Dental undergraduates, Tobacco, Tobacco cessation, Tobacco cessation counseling, Tobacco cessation methods, Tobacco products, Tobacco regulations, Tobacco use

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0176  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Tobacco use causes enormous morbidity and mortality because of the high risk of tobacco addiction-related diseases. It is one of the leading causes of preventable death in the world and an important cause of premature death. The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence 2008 Update state that the clinician is responsible for providing a brief tobacco cessation intervention to all tobacco-using patients. Dental students generally report feeling unprepared to counsel tobacco-using patients to quit because of a lack of knowledge and confidence in the effectiveness of such tobacco cessation measures. These drawbacks of knowledge and confidence related to tobacco cessation measures can be overcome through the introduction of adequate and special systematic training as a part of the dental curriculum. If dentists are to provide tobacco cessation counseling regularly, such counseling must become a more prominent component of the dental curriculum. Hence, this article aims at suggesting and implementing systematic tobacco cessation program (TCP) for dental undergraduates in their curriculum.

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