Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2022 | September-December | Volume 16 | Issue 3

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Harish Kumar

Effectiveness of Dental Education Program on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Dental Caries and Its Management among School Children from Selected Schools of Kolar

[Year:2022] [Month:September-December] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:119 - 125]

Keywords: Dental caries, Dental education program, DMFT/DMFS, School children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0148  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


This study was conducted at schools to investigate the prevalence of dental caries and effect of dental education programs on knowledge and attitude regarding dental caries and its management among school children. An evaluative research approach with one-group pre- and post-test design was adopted to collect data. The prevalence of dental caries was determined using the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT)/decayed, missing, filled surface (DMFS) index using the World Health Organization criteria 1997. After obtaining ethical clearance and permission from authorities, children were subjects for dental screening. Mouth mirror, probe, and explorer were used for carrying out the dental examination in the classroom under natural light with the children seated on a stool, followed by administration of dental education program. The prevalence of dental caries among government and private school students is 31 (77.5%), mean DMFT scores are 2.47 with a standard deviation of 2.184, and their mean DMFS scores are 5.38 with a standard deviation of 6.436. Majority of 31 (77.5%) school children were with dental caries and 9 (22.5%) with no tooth decay, the majority (100%) of school children had insufficient knowledge in pre-test, 10% of school children had adequate knowledge on dental caries, and the majority (100%) of school children had an unfavorable attitude toward dental caries in pre-test, 45% had a moderately favorable attitude toward dental caries. The difference in knowledge and attitude about dental caries and its management between post- and pre-test scores among school-aged children was statistically significant. The study's findings may be utilized to organize a school-based dental program for children and their parents to practice routine oral hygiene and get frequent dental checkups, allowing them to lead a healthier life.



Adedeji Daniel Obikoya

Teamwork or Working as a Team? Exploring the Dimensions of Team Reflexivity and Its Impact within the Primary Care Dental Services: A Case Study

[Year:2022] [Month:September-December] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:126 - 132]

Keywords: Communication, Education, Future dental work force, Management, Psychosocial impact, Satisfaction

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0150  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Teamwork is an integral part of dentistry, and team reflexivity (TR) is an essential process that impacts team outcomes in real teams. Aims and objectives: This study explores the perception of the dental team about the dimensions of TR and team psychological empowerment (TPE) and evaluates the correlation between TR and TPE. Method: The literature review provided widely validated psychometric measures for the dependent and independent variables TR and TPE. Following the initial piloting, an online questionnaire scored using the Likert scale was distributed to the entire primary care dental staff within four counties in the Republic of Ireland. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation, and regression analyses was performed to detect statistical significance at α = 0.05 significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.001) between TR and TPE. Feedback-seeking behavior (FSB) and overall TR have a statistically significant association with years in service (p = 0.01 and 0.042, respectively). This finding implies the longer the years-in-service, the lower the FSB and overall TR. Reflection on processes (ROP) and error analysis (EA) have a statistically significant correlation (p = 0.011 and 0.048, respectively) with TPE. Autonomy (A) was the only dimension of TPE that had a statistical correlation (p = 0.006) with TR. Conclusion: Team reflexivity in primary care dental settings has significant implications for dental TPE, and both TR and TPE have reciprocal effects and can be mutually influential. Overall, this study submits that making the primary care dental setting a learning environment significantly impacts dental team empowerment. In addition, this study suggests the need for an appropriately led guided approach to TR toward state-funded primary care dental TPE.



Khyati Gupta, Sameep Singh

Evaluation of the Prevalence of Different Types of Traumatic Injuries to Primary Anterior Teeth among Preschool Children in National Capital Region of Delhi, India: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2022] [Month:September-December] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:133 - 137]

Keywords: Dental trauma, Hard tissue dental injury, Luxation, Primary anterior teeth, Periodontal injury, Preschool children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0152  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background/Aim: The increasing worldwide prevalence of traumatic injury to primary teeth has raised concerns among dental practitioners and parents. This is due to the serious impact it has on children's dental as well as overall physical, emotional, and mental health. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of different types of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth in preschool children. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1,800 preschool children, 2–6 years old, were selected from 17 primary schools in Delhi, the national capital region (NCR). The primary maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth of these children were examined by a single examiner, and a questionnaire was filled out by the parent/guardian. Andreasen's classification was used to classify the traumatic injuries. Statistical analysis was done by the Chi-square test, and the p-values ≤0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of hard tissue injuries was as follows: enamel infraction in 3.9%, enamel fracture in 84.4%, enamel–dentin fracture in 7.79%, and complicated crown fractures in 3.9%. Enamel fracture was the most common type of hard tissue injury, with more prevalence in 5-year-old children (37.6%) and affecting girls (51.9%) more than boys (32.46%). Distribution of children with TDI according to injury to periodontal tissues showed percentage of concussion (24.89%), subluxation (10.92%), extrusive luxation (7.86%), intrusive luxation (15.72%), lateral luxation (24.45%), and avulsion (16.6%) with concussion being the most common. Boys (58.5%) were more affected than girls (41.4%) with concussion, and it was more prevalent in 5-year-old children (51.09%). P-values were insignificant for both hard tissue and periodontal tissue injuries. Conclusions: Due to the wide variation in the type of injuries and their prevalence, there is a need to spread awareness among parents through educational programs regarding the possible risks and preventive solutions for the same.



S Maya Sri, P Nimmy

Effects of Chewing Gums Containing Xylitol and Sorbitol on Salivary Microflora, Plaque, and Gingiva: A Systematic Review

[Year:2022] [Month:September-December] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:138 - 141]

Keywords: Chewing gum, Gingiva, Plaque, Salivary microflora, Sorbitol, Xylitol

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0155  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study is targeted to assess the effect of chewing gums containing xylitol and sorbitol on salivary microflora, plaque, and gingiva. Materials and methods: The literature review was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Science Direct, Lilacs, Google Scholar, Gray Literature, and Ovid MEDLINE using MeSH Terms—Chewing gums, xylitol, and sorbitol. Among the total of 870 titles appearing from various sources, 746 records were screened, and 70 were related to the research. This review is described according to PRISMA guidelines for systematic review. Results: Four randomized control trial articles were included, effects of xylitol and sorbitol chewing gums were compared. Among the four trials, three found statistically significant differences favoring the effects of chewing gums containing xylitol and sorbitol. Conclusion: Thereby, we can conclude that xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gums affect salivary microflora, plaque, and gingiva. Clinical significance: Prevention of plaque and salivary microflora using xylitol and sorbitol.



Krithika Chakravarthy

Multiple Adult Traumatic Dental Injury in Lower Anterior Teeth: One Year Follow-up

[Year:2022] [Month:September-December] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:142 - 144]

Keywords: Case report, Dental Trauma, Emergency treatment, Traumatic endodontology

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0157  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Traumatic dental injuries form a major number of patients reporting for emergency dental care. Simple household injuries to major road traffic accidents can lead to traumatic injuries of teeth in adults. Often, these injuries affect the social and psychological status of the patient. Managing dental trauma is never the same and it always presents a challenge to dentists due to varied presentations and results. This case report aims to highlight the importance of strictly following the guidelines under stringent infection control measures to achieve predictable success.



Gyanendra Kumar, Ferah Rehman, Monica Kelkar, Meera Choudhary, Sumita Upadhayay, Manvi Srivastava, Shreya Tripathi

A Web-based Survey to Assess the Knowledge and Practice Regarding Biomedical Waste Management during COVID-19 among Oral Health Professionals

[Year:2022] [Month:September-December] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:145 - 150]

Keywords: Biomedical waste management, Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic, Infection control, Questionnaire

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0154  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objectives: The study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of biomedical waste (BMW) management among dental practitioners in India during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic era. Materials and methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted via a web-based questionnaire survey done among 1,500 dentists across the country, and responses were collected between the months of May 2020 to June 2020. The use of descriptive statistics such as percentage analysis and frequency analysis of the survey respondents was done to describe the data. The Chi-square test was used to detect any correlation between the dentists’ responses concerning their gender and level of education and age. Variables with p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The study engaged a total of 1,093 responses out of the 1,500 invited dentists, forming a response rate of 72.86%. Among these were 69.9% female and 30.1% male dentists. A 100% correct response was observed with the questions on the source of infection of COVID-19, frequency of disinfection of the dental chair, and cross-infection related to the disposal of BMW. The questions regarding the practice of donning off and disposing of personal protective equipment (PPE) were mostly incorrect with a percentage of 16.1 and 26.9%, respectively. The association between practice score and knowledge score concerning either gender was not significant (p > 0.05) whereas, the association with the level of education and age was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The dentists in India were well informed of the hazardous waste generated in hospitals and clinics and were aware that it should be disposed off properly, especially in times of COVID-19. However, they lacked proper knowledge of the guidelines for disposing of specific types of waste during this pandemic.



Ram Basam Chowdary, Sravanthi Tammineedi, Bolla Nagesh, Sayesh Vemuri, Ram Sunil Chukka, Lakshman Chowdary Basam, BS Anila

Perception and Practice of Shade Selection Principles among Postgraduates and Dental Practitioners in India: A Cross-sectional Survey

[Year:2022] [Month:September-December] [Volume:16] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:151 - 158]

Keywords: Dental practitioners, Esthetic restorations, Perception, Shade matching

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0153  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims: The main purpose of this survey is to analyze the perceptions and practices of shade selection principles among postgraduates and dental practitioners in India. Materials and methods: A well-formulated questionnaire consisting a total of 25 questions was disseminated among the postgraduates (Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Prosthodontics, Pedodontics) general practitioners, specialist practitioners (Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Prosthodontics, Pedodontics). The questionnaire includes knowledge and practice about shade selection principles and techniques. A total of 530 replies was accepted over Google forms. Responses were obtained from 266 postgraduates, 176 specialist practitioners, and 88 general practitioners. The data was analyzed using SPSS V25. Descriptive statistics were represented with percentages. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were utilized to find the association between level of knowledge and level of practice with demographic variables (p < 0.05). Results: Among the 530 respondents, 412 (77.7%) have poor/average knowledge and 118 (22.3%) have good knowledge of shade matching principles. There are 418 (78.9%) respondents utilized poor/average shade-matching practices. There are 112 (21.1%) respondents utilized good methods of practice for shade selection. Conclusion: Among specialist practitioners, postgraduates, and general practitioners, the specialist practitioners had satisfactory knowledge and practices on shade selection. Knowledge and practice regarding the shade matching principles among the dentists were not adequate and Continuing Dental Education (CDE) programs on principles of shade analysis are recommended to regularly update the knowledge among the dental practitioners.


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