Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2022 | May-August | Volume 16 | Issue 2

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Shilpi Garg, Preety Gupta

Association of 2D:4D Ratio (Hormonal Fingerprints) with Dental Caries and Malocclusion among 18–25-year-old Dental Students

[Year:2022] [Month:May-August] [Volume:16] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:73 - 76]

Keywords: Caries, Hormonal fingerprints, Malocclusion, Second digit to fourth digit ratio

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0147  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: The goal was to discover the association of hormonal fingerprints with dental caries and malocclusion in our study. Methodology: A total of 200 dental college students of the age-group of 18–25 years were randomly selected. The hormonal fingerprint was created by using a Vernier caliper to measure the length of the index and ring fingers and determine their ratio. Standard mouth mirrors and community periodontal index (CPI) probes were used to assess caries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) assessment form, 2013, the sum of the number of Decayed, Missing due to caries, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) in the permanent teeth index was used to assess caries. Malocclusion was assessed by using the dental esthetic index. For statistical analysis, SPSS software was utilized. Results: According to the findings, the majority of study subjects had a second digit to fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio of <1. Prevalence of malocclusion was observed to be increasing with an increase in 2D:4D ratio. Caries occurrence was also found to increase with an increase in malocclusion. Conclusion: Our study confirms that hormonal fingerprints can be used as an early predictor for dental caries and malocclusion.



Gowri Sivaramakrishnan, Basma Alawadhi, Bayan Almahmood, Khulood Allooloo, Noora Alnajem, Zainab Jaffar, Leena AlSalihi, Muneera Alsobaiei

Child Oral Health-related Knowledge and Practices of Mothers in Bahrain—Are Practices Based on Knowledge?

[Year:2022] [Month:May-August] [Volume:16] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:77 - 82]

Keywords: Health promotion, Maternal knowledge, Pediatric oral health

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0067A  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Young children are not capable of maintaining good oral hygiene independently. The current prevalence of dental caries in Bahrain is extremely high and considering the importance of mother's role, the present study was aimed to identify the association between child oral health-related knowledge and practices of Bahraini mothers. Materials and methods: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study included mothers with at least one child between 6 months and 12 years of age. The questionnaire consisted of three parts to decipher information on demographic data, knowledge of mothers on child oral health, and the oral health-related practices of mothers. Student t-test and ANOVA were used to assess the level of significance between the variables and knowledge scores. The p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. The data obtained were analyzed using Graph Instat version 3.1. software. Results: In total, 264 mothers were included. The total mean (SD) knowledge score was 7.73 (1.83). Anxious mothers (p-value = 0.050), aged 31–40 (p = 0.046) significantly displayed greater knowledge scores. About 73.8% of the mothers took their child to a dentist only in pain. There were significantly greater odds of good knowledge scores in mothers that received tooth brushing demonstration [2.33 (1.37–3.95)]. Conclusion: The mean knowledge scores of mothers were found to be poor. Although majority of the mothers showed promising oral hygiene practices, these practices were not based on good knowledge regarding oral health. This relationship needs to be established in order to bring about an overall improvement in the oral health of the children in Bahrain.



Suresh Nanditha, Muthusamy Senthil Kumar, Kannepaddy Sham Kishor, Wihaskoro Sosroseno

Digital Radiographic Study on Variations of Alveolar Bone Height among Three Asian Ethnic Groups and its Importance in Periodontal Diagnosis

[Year:2022] [Month:May-August] [Volume:16] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:83 - 86]

Keywords: Periodontal disease, Periodontitis, Prevalence, Tooth loss, Treatment needs

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0061  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To assess whether anatomical variations exist in the radiographic distance from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to the alveolar crest (AC) among various ethnic groups in Malaysia, using digital radiography and if so their relevance in periodontal diagnosis. Materials and methods: A total of 151 digitized bitewing radiographs of systemically and periodontally healthy students were obtained, after determining their ethnicity by a closed-ended questionnaire. Distances between the CEJ and the alveolar bone crest (CEJ–AC) were measured using a software program (Digora, DfW 2.5) by a single-examiner statistical analysis used: ANOVA and the student t test. Results: The mean distance of the AC from the CEJ was 0.8147 mm across the entire sample, and the Chinese population exhibited the greatest distances compared to Malays and Indians. Sites that showed increased distances between the CEJ and AC were distal aspects of mandibular second premolars equating the total sample. Conclusion: Among the three Asian ethnic groups, Chinese had a significantly greater distance between the CEJ and the AC. This finding might be influenced by genetic and environmental factors that entail further research in this direction and needs to be considered while diagnosing periodontal disease.



Zoha Abdullah, RS Durgadevi, A Caroline Jerry, G Ganesh Kumar, Parvathy Premnath

Association of Depression and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Undergraduate Dental College Students in Chennai, India

[Year:2022] [Month:May-August] [Volume:16] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:87 - 93]

Keywords: Dental students, Depression, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Insomnia, Sleep quality

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0063A  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has become an emerging problem in 50% of college students. For healthcare students and professionals, the negative impact of EDS not only negatively affects the individual but also the safety and quality of care to the patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of EDS among the dental students and to examine the correlation between risk factors and EDS in college students. Materials and methods: An online questionnaire (Google Form) with questions related to the sociodemographic characteristics, daytime sleepiness, depression, insomnia, and sedentary behaviors was distributed via online platforms. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS software. Bivariate analysis (Chi-square test) was used to assess the association between independent variables with each of the main outcomes of interest. Independent t-test was done to compare continuous variables of interest between those with EDS and without EDS. Pearson correlation test was used to analyze the correlation between the variables. Results: A total of 170 students participated in the survey. The overall EDS prevalence was 72.4%. About 37.6% and 27% said they experience insomnia and had severe depression. There was a positive correlation between CESS score (EDS), depression, and insomnia score. Conclusion: Daytime sleepiness was highly prevalent among the college students in this study, and it was significantly associated with depression and insomnia among the college students.



Diya Kumari, Vaibhav Tandon, Supinder Sudan, Monika Singh

Comparative Evaluation of Antiplaque Efficacy of Chlorhexidine, Green Tea and Herbal Mouthwashes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:May-August] [Volume:16] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:94 - 97]

Keywords: Antiplaque efficacy, Chlorhexidine, Colgate plax, Hiora

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0064A  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Chemical antiplaque mouthwashes are used to improve oral health care. Nowadays, herbal mouthwashes with their “naturally occurring” active ingredients are beneficial in the treatment of gingival disease without any side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the antiplaque efficacy of chlorhexidine, green tea, and herbal mouthwashes. Materials and methods: It is a randomized controlled trial in which 45 participants were equally divided into three groups: Group A – Chlorhexidine, Group B – Hiora, and Group C – Colgate plax. Oral prophylaxis followed by the prescription of mouthwash and plaque index, gingival index, stain index, taste perception, and CPITN index were recorded at baseline, on the 14th and 21st days. Result: On comparing plaque index at baseline and after 21 days between Hiora, chlorhexidine, and Colgate plax, a statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.00), whereas CPITN index between Hiora and Colgate plax was also statistically significant (p = 0.00), while scores of stain index and taste perception of chlorhexidine group only were found statistically significant (p = 0.00). Conclusion: Colgate plax mouthwash was found to be more effective in plaque reduction, less stain, and good taste perception rather than chlorhexidine and Hiora.



Eman Mansur, Salihah A Abu Baker, Ahmed A Boukharees

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Libyan Pediatricians toward Early Childhood Caries

[Year:2022] [Month:May-August] [Volume:16] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:98 - 105]

Keywords: Dental caries, Oral health, Professional attitudes, Professional behavior, Professional education

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0065A  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objectives: This study aimed to assess pediatricians’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward early childhood caries (ECC) in the governorate of Ajdabiya, Libya. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 50 pediatricians, who work at primary healthcare centers in the governorate of Ajdabiya (in 2021). Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire that was developed using the KAP study construction guides. Pretests of the questionnaire were performed with five pediatricians, who did not participate in the study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows, version 25.0 (SPSS Inc). The alpha value was 0.05. Results: The overall scores of knowledge ranged from 2 to 12, with a mean of 6.1 (SD, 1.6). For attitudes, the overall scores ranged from 7 to 14, with a mean of 12.1 (SD, 1.5). And the overall scores of practices ranged from 1 to 24, with a mean of 10.0 (SD, 4.7). There were positive correlations between the KAP overall scores. The findings showed weak associations, except between knowledge and practices, it was medium. Conclusion: Libyan pediatricians demonstrated positive attitudes toward oral health. Nevertheless, their knowledge and practices appeared to be deficient regarding the early dental visits, the cariogenic effect of ad libitum breastfeeding, transmission of cariogenic bacteria from mothers/caregiver to the child, and the role and uses of F in preventive dentistry.



Niyati Mishra, Sumit Bhatt, Himanshu Pratap Singh

Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst in Posterior Maxilla: A Rare Diagnosis

[Year:2022] [Month:May-August] [Volume:16] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:106 - 109]

Keywords: Maxillary, Odontogenic keratocyst

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0066A  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Aim of this case report is to discuss and identify a rare diagnosis yet seen commonly in oral and maxillofacial field and often misdiagnosed as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Background: The term “odontogenic keratocyst” was first described by Philipsen in 1956. This was then modified by World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005 as “odontogenic unicystic” or “multicystic intraosseous tumor” with a distinctive parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelial lining and the propensity for aggressive and infiltrative activity. It has a male predilection and bimodal age distribution. Orthokeratinized OKC makes up to 2.1% of all the cystic lesions of the jaws. Case description: A young female patient aged 18 years reported to our department with the chief complaint of pus like discharge from upper left back tooth region for the past 2 months. After all the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings, the patient was then diagnosed with orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) of posterior maxilla. Conclusion: Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst has clinical, histological, and biological characteristics that distinguish it from OKC, including better prognosis and decreased recurrence rate. Clinical significance: It is important to distinguish between OKC and OOC as the latter shows less chances of recurrence and less scope for malignancy transformation.



Vinita Goyel, Tanya Batra, Shivani Mathur

Use of Preformed Space Maintainer and Regainer in an 8-year-old Child: A Case Report

[Year:2022] [Month:May-August] [Volume:16] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:110 - 112]

Keywords: Child oral health impact profile, Dental caries, Pediatric dentistry, Preventive dentistry, School children

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0145  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Exfoliation of primary teeth and eruption of permanent teeth is a normal physiological process. However, when this normal process is disrupted due to factors like premature loss of primary teeth, proximal carious lesions, etc., it may lead to mesial migration of teeth resulting in loss of the arch length, which can manifest as malocclusion in permanent dentition in the form of crowding. To preserve the wastage of arch length and perimeter by maintaining the relative position of the existing dentition, a space maintainer is fabricated after a premature loss of the primary tooth. The fabrication requires patient cooperation and multiple visits. In this case report, a prefabricated space maintainer and regainer were used in eight-year-old uncooperative child successfully. Follow-up was taken after 6 months which showed successful compliance of patient as well as maintenance of good oral hygiene.



Kempaiah S Madhusudhan, N Priyanka Reddy, Priya Subramaniam, Bhargavi Vojjala

Management of Mucous Extravasation Cyst: A Report of Two Cases

[Year:2022] [Month:May-August] [Volume:16] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:113 - 117]

Keywords: Extravasation, Minor salivary glands, Oral mucocele, Retention cyst

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0146  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Mucocele is the most common oral lesion of the minor salivary glands in children and young adults. An 8-year-old male child and a 9-year-old female child presented to our department with a chief complaint of swelling in the inner aspect of the lower lip. On clinical examination, the swelling was fluctuant. Excisional biopsy of the lesion was performed. Histopathological reports confirmed the diagnosis of mucocele. Good prognosis was observed at follow-up.


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