Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2021 | September-December | Volume 15 | Issue 3

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Roshan D Peiris, Kapila S Arambawatta, Shyama K Bannehaka, Tharanga L Nandasena, Thushari N Pitakotuwage

Gender and Ethnic Group Differences in Dental Caries in a Sri Lankan Population

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:103 - 107]

Keywords: Aboriginal Vedda, Adolescents, Caries prevalence, Children, Ethnic group differences, Gender differences, Sri Lankan Sinhalese

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0108  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To determine the caries prevalence rate of children and adolescent in contemporary Sri Lankan Sinhalese and aboriginal Vedda population. Materials and methods: Dental caries rates were examined in two Sri Lankan ethnic groups of urban, westernized, market-integrated Sinhalese and rural, aboriginal Veddas with traditional culture. Two age-groups were studied in each ethnic group: 5–7-year olds and 12–15-year olds. A target sample of 563 subjects was recruited (373 contemporary Sinhalese 190 aboriginal Veddas). Results: In 5–7-year age-group, caries prevalence and dmft were higher in females than males in Sinhalese while those of males were higher than females in Vedda. In 12–15-year age-group, Vedda showed higher caries prevalence and DMFT in males than those of females while Sinhalese showed the opposite where females had higher caries prevalence than males. When compared the caries prevalence and dmft/DMFT between Sinhalese and Vedda, in 5–7-year age-group, above parameters of both males and females were higher in Sinhalese than Vedda. The difference was statistically significant only in female dmft. In 12–15-year age-group, the pattern was opposite where caries prevalence and DMFT were higher in Vedda than Sinhalese in both the genders. Caries prevalence of 5–7-year age-group was significantly higher than that of 12–15-year age-group in both males and females of contemporary Sinhalese and Vedda. Conclusion: Overall caries prevalence of 5–7-year and 12–15-year age-groups is 72.3% and 33.1%, respectively, in contemporary Sri Lankan Sinhalese and 63.9% and 40.3%, respectively, in Vedda. Furthermore, females of 12–15-year age-group do not demonstrate significantly higher caries rates than males in both the population groups. The caries prevalence in children is higher than adolescent in both genders of contemporary Sri Lankan Sinhalese and Vedda. This information is necessary in planning and implementing oral diseases prevention and health promotion programs.



Nidhi Shree, Aparajita Dasgupta, Bobby Paul, Lina Bandyopadhyay, Neelam Maurya, Foulisa Pyrbot, Soumit Roy

Assessment of Oral Health and Hygiene Practices among Students of High School, Hooghly District, West Bengal

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:108 - 111]

Keywords: Adolescent health, Oral health, Oral hygiene practice

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0109  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: Oral health is a key indicator of overall health, well-being, and quality of life of an individual. India has an alarming population with oro-dental problems. Dental caries and poor oral hygiene constitute more than 50% of major public oral-health problem, among children and adolescents. Aim: Aim was to assess the status of oral health and oral hygiene practices among high school students of Hooghly district and find out the factors associated with bad oral health. Settings and design: Institution-based observational study with cross-sectional design was conducted from July to September 2019 among students of seventh, eighth, and ninth grades of two schools of Hooghly district in West Bengal. Materials and methods: Using complete enumeration method, out of 288 students enrolled, 194 students were examined. Students filled a self-administered, predesigned, pretested questionnaire following which oral health was examined. Statistical analysis: Oral health and hygiene practices were separately scored and the bivariate and multivariable analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Half, 86% of the students had self-reported unsatisfactory oral hygiene practice and 55.6% students had poor oral health. Males had better oral health and practice scores than females. Female gender 2.22 [1.01–4.89] and Muslim religion 2.55 [1.18–5.53] were significantly associated with bad oral health in the final multivariable model. Conclusion: Awareness and early start of good oral hygienic practice in childhood can prevent most of the oral diseases. This can pave the way for uptake of timely interventions before any complications set in. Thus, there is a need to inculcate effective Information Education and Communication (IEC) interventions early in childhood to promote good oral health.



Pradeep Tangade, Surbhi Priyadarshi, Vikas Singh, Mushahid Hasan, Vasundhara

Assessment of Social Media Usage in Dental Education of Students of Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:112 - 116]

Keywords: Dental education, Dental students, Social media, Social networking sites

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0110  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Rapid increase in the usage of social media among dental students and practitioners has profoundly altered dental education. Aim: The main aim of this study was to access the social media usage for dental education among the dental students of Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre and to find out the most visited social networking sites. Materials and methods: Prevalidated questionnaire that consists of 26 questions including sociodemographic details was distributed to 400 students of dental college. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee of Teerthanker Mahaveer University. Descriptive statistics was used for the frequency distribution and percentage. Results: According to this survey, females (73.7%) tend to use more social media than males (26.3%). They found that almost every student (94.9%) uses the Smartphones for daily work like learning, SMS, research, and seminars. Students use social media for email purpose (79.04%), use social media for instructional YouTube videos (80.9%), and use the web for surfing material (72%). Social media improves the quality of education and provides access to courses and learning material. Conclusion: Social media is bringing new dimension to healthcare, dental students, and health promotion. Dental students have profound knowledge of using social media for dental education.



Reethu Salim

Oral Health Status among the Older Population in South Kerala

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:117 - 121]

Keywords: Dental caries, Dental diseases, Older population, Oral health status, Periodontal diseases

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0111  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Context: The world population is aging; the proportion of older people is increasing at a faster rate than that of any other age-group. Oral health of the older population is a global concern, which involves a high prevalence of missing teeth, dental caries, periodontal disease, and wasting diseases. Poor oral health and poor general health are interrelated, due to common risk factors. Studies show that the burden of oral diseases among older people in India is high. We attempted to assess the oral health status among older population in South Kerala using the World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment tool. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status of older people residing in South Kerala. Settings and design: The study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted among older population in South Kerala. Methods and materials: A community-based cross-sectional study in which 399 people participated, of which 200 were females and 199 males. People above 60 years who were permanent residents of the district and of diverse socioeconomic status were recruited into the study. The sampling method used was circular systemic random sampling. Clinical examination was done according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis used: Descriptive statistics was used in the data. p ≤0.05 was considered significant. Student's t-test was used to find the association between variables. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 65 ± 5.5. The mean decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) was 8.78 ± 8.3, and the mean missing teeth score was 7.38 ± 8.5. The mean decayed score was 1.3 ± 1.96. Conclusion: The oral health of the study population was generally poor, and their treatment needs were high. Therefore, efforts should be taken to bridge the gap between demand and supply of oral healthcare needs among older population. Key messages: The present study shows that the burden of oral diseases in older population is high, based on the high number of dental caries, periodontitis, and missing teeth. The complications of oral diseases can be prevented by early detection, treatment, and proper oral hygiene practices.



Umashankar Gangadharaiah Kadaluru, Rukmini Jinnagara Naryanappa

Social Insurance for Oral Healthcare: Analysis of Two Insurance Schemes in India

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:122 - 128]

Keywords: Dental care, Dental health, Dental services, Health insurance

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0112  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: To assess the equity, access, and utilization of social health insurance schemes in India for oral healthcare services. Methodology: A case study approach was used with both qualitative and quantitative information, which was collected from various sources like personal interviews of informed persons in the scheme, annual reports of the scheme, and through the Right to Information Act 2003. Results: Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) Scheme and Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) are the large and oldest social insurance schemes implemented in India, covering approximately 12% of the population who are working in organized sectors. In terms of dental health, both the schemes provide a range of services through their centers without any capping or sealing for dental services. It also outsources the services through empaneled healthcare organizations with reimbursement mechanisms for 58 approved procedures with fixed rates. In terms of oral health, there is poor access and utilization of these schemes. Conclusion: The ESI scheme and CGHS can be a tool to achieve universal health coverage; however, it needs modification to be utilized to its optimum benefits.



Kishor Tom

Prevalence of Gingival Biotype in Correlation with the Morphology of Maxillary Central Incisors and Its Variation among Three Ethnic Groups of Malaysian Subpopulations

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:129 - 133]

Keywords: Papillary height, Thick biotype, Thin biotype, Varying forms

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0119  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The gingival perspective in restorative dentistry is important in harmonizing esthetics and biological function. In this regard, the gingival biotypes have been stated to be thick or thin. Patients with the thin biotype are more prone to recession, inflammation, and compromised soft tissue response. The correct recognition of gingival biotypes is important for the treatment planning process in restorative and implant dentistry. The purposes of the survey were to evaluate the prevalence of the gingival biotype in correlation with the morphology of maxillary central incisors and its variation among three ethnic groups of Malaysian subpopulations and the prevalence of different gingival biotypes in individuals with varying forms of maxillary central incisors. Materials and methods: A total of 300 individuals who were periodontally healthy, visiting the outpatient department of AIMST Dental Institute, Kedah, Malaysia, in the age range of 18–50 years, participated in the survey. Then, 100 participants from each race, that is, Chinese, Malay, and Indian, were further subdivided into two groups based on age as group I (18–30 years) and group II (30–50 years). Three clinical parameters were recorded by one examiner. This included the crown width/crown length (CW/CL) ratio of the two central incisors, papillary height (PH), and gingival thickness. The measurements were tabulated and evaluated. Results: There was a highly significant correlation between gingival biotype and crown length and area of papilla with p values of −0.002 and 0.013, respectively. Significant correlation was found between area of crown and PH with p values −0.013 and 0.016. The results of discriminant function analysis showed that the average crown length was the best single determinant of biotype and area of papilla was the next best choice. The thinner biotype was more prevalent in young Chinese and Malay population with medium forms of maxillary central incisors while the young Indian population had thicker biotypes and wide and short form of maxillary central incisors. The older group in both Chinese and Malay populations have no difference in their gingival biotype regardless of their crown form. In the older Indian population, gingival biotype is thicker with a short and wide form of maxillary central incisors. Decreased papillary height was observed in the thinner biotypes in younger Chinese and Malay populations but thicker in young Indian population. Conclusion: Within the limits of the current investigation, the existence and correlation of different gingival biotypes and dentopapillary complex dimension has been confirmed. These findings can be utilized as objective guidelines for determining the biotype and response of gingiva to many dental operative procedures.



Prakash Nidawani, Arjita Dutta, Girish P Galagali, E Srinivas Reddy, Saba Anjum

Assessment of Oral Health Awareness among Undergraduate Medical Students in Raichur District: A Survey

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:134 - 138]

Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Oral health

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0120  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Early detection of oral diseases makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Delay in presentation and/or referral has a significant effect on the associated morbidity and mortality. Lack of general medical practitioner's knowledge of oral disease has been shown to contribute to delays in referral and treatment. Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dental awareness among undergraduate medical students in Raichur District, Karnataka, India. The present study is cross-sectional survey conducted among the medical students in Raichur District, Karnataka, India. 140 undergraduate medical students from 4 different years were selected for the present study. The data pertaining to their knowledge, attitude and practice about oral health was gathered using a self-administered questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Majority of the undergraduate medical students were aware about the inter-relation between oral health and general health. Clinical relevance statement: The present study aims at evaluating the awareness among undergraduate medical students about the oral health. It also focuses on the need of incorporation of basic knowledge about dentistry in medical syllabi.



Shiladitya Sil

Assessing the Knowledge Regarding Prevention and Transmission of COVID-19 among Dental Healthcare Professionals in India

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:139 - 143]

Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Dental practice, Virology, Knowledge among dental surgeons, Dental Practitioners, India, Oral health care professionals

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0121  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background and aim of the study: The nomenclature of COVID-19 was given by the World Health Organization on February 11, 2020. As dentists work in close proximity to the oral cavity, they remain at a high risk of exposure to COVID-19. With this background, a descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was planned to assess the knowledge regarding prevention and transmission of COVID-19 among dental practitioners in India. Materials and methods: A self-validated, 28-point questionnaire was formulated after reviewing the international guidelines and circulated through the Google Forms platform. Data were studied to establish a baseline. Results: A total of 200 dental practitioners participated. Most of them had adequate knowledge regarding symptoms and transmission of COVID-19, directly proportional to higher degree and years of practice. There was adequate knowledge regarding sterilization protocols, disinfection techniques, and elective procedures with an overall score of 77.4%. There was poor understanding of emergency dental procedures and patient and personnel screening. Indian dental practitioners were found to have adequate understanding of COVID-19 that is the need of the hour to break the chain of transmission. Conclusion: There is a need to generate a set of guidelines and treatment protocols approved by national dental associations for the systematic functioning of dental practitioners in India.



Preeti Sagar, Manesh Lahori

Prosthodontic Rehabilitation of a Patient with Unilateral Facial Paralysis: A Rare Clinical Report

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:2] [Pages No:144 - 145]

Keywords: Case report, Dental appearance, Flaccid muscles, Musculoskeletal disorder

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0116  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Facial paralysis is a condition that involves loss of control of facial muscles on the affected side and is generally sudden in onset. The nerve involved is the VII cranial nerve. This report presents the prosthodontic management of a patient for both function and esthetics and thus enhances his self-esteem. Our approach was to use a technique that enables the patient to stabilize the mandibular movements and use the fabricated denture successfully.



Siji Elizabeth, Bhavna Gupta Saraf, Meenu Taneja, Shweta Rehani

Laser Diode: A Solution for Recurring Oral Mucocele in Children

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:146 - 148]

Keywords: Laser diode, Mucocele, Oral lesion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0117  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Oral mucocele is an asymptomatic, non-neoplastic lesion of the salivary glands caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory ducts. With an incidence of 2.5 lesions per 1,000, it is most common among pediatric patients. Clinically, they appear as well-circumscribed, round, single or multiple, and soft and fluctuant swellings. Although various surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities are present in the literature, diode lasers provide a simple, rapid, effective, bloodless, and well-accepted procedure for treating mucocele in pediatric patients.



Ruchika Sharma, Nitin Khuller

Oral Mucocele Removal in a Pediatric Patient Using Diode Laser: A Case Report

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:149 - 151]

Keywords: Diode laser, Mucocele, Ranula, Salivary Gland

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0118  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Mucocele is a commonly occurring lesion in the oral cavity, mostly involving the minor salivary glands, resulting from the rupture or obliteration of the ducts leading to their glandular contents (mucinous) being released subepithelially. Etiological factors include trauma, parafunctional habits, lip-biting, etc. Various treatment modalities have been advocated for mucocele among which lasers are the most recent and advanced. This case report presents the treatment of mucocele of the lower lip with a 980 nm diode laser.



Ritu Maiti, GK Umashankar

Legal Implications of Dental Practice in India: A Critical Review of Court Cases in India

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:152 - 155]

Keywords: Court cases, Dentist, Errors, Negligence, Punishment

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0114  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The dental profession is a deeply revered relationship with the patients. But it is ironic that in recent times, the attacks on doctors have become common. Such incidents are increasing at an alarming rate and are reflective of an ailing Indian healthcare system. The reasons cited for such acts are patient dissatisfaction after treatment, false complaints and acquisitions, and highlights by the media. This has made the healthcare system more sensitive and vulnerable. Though such incidents can be resolved between patients and dentists, sometimes patients seek help from the court. A legal case against the dentist causes social, psychological, and financial instabilities. Therefore, every health professional in order to avoid such litigations should have an idea about the rules and regulations guiding their profession, the law and ethics pertaining to their practice, and standard protocols to follow in everyday routine. The data gathered for this review article were from Internet search of court cases recorded. The following article is an attempt to review the court cases and throw light to the rightful steps to minimize the risk.



Sakshi Jain, Tanya Batra, Vinod Sachdev

Evolving Perception of a Pediatric Dentist Post-COVID-19

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:156 - 159]

Keywords: COVID-19, New normal, Pediatric dentistry

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0115  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Everything in the world was going beautifully until the arrival of coronavirus in December 2019, which marked the beginning of reshaping the world. Dentistry is greatly affected during this pandemic as dentist and dental assistant are at greater risk of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infection because they deal with the oral fluids. Pediatric dentists are at even higher risk as the rate of transmission from children to adults is more than that of transmission from adults to adults. There is a change in practice of pediatric dentistry that will soon be considered as the new normal. Sterilization and disinfection was done before COVID also, but now protocols will have to be followed even strictly. Although the treatment remains the same, approach toward it has to be changed.



Parvathy Premnath, Jayashree Senathipathivadivel, Jaya Aishwariyagha Senthilkumar, Jayadev Bharath Eswaran

Impact of COVID-19 Quarantine on Utilization of Dental Treatment

[Year:2021] [Month:September-December] [Volume:15] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:160 - 163]

Keywords: COVID 19 pandemic, Dental appointment, Dental emergencies, Quarantine

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0107  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Coronaviruses diseases-19 (COVID-19) has become pandemic throughout the world, which is highly transmissible. Because of close physical contact with patients, dental professionals are at particularly high risk of being infected with COVID-19. As a result, the dental services were limited to the emergency and urgent cases during the early days of the pandemic. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 quarantine on utilization of dental treatment. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the outpatients within the age-group of 16–65 years in Kancheepuram and Chengalpattu districts. Patients who were undergoing dental treatment before lockdown and those who experienced emergency problems during COVID-19 pandemic were included in this study. A questionnaire with 24 questions assessing the level of anxiety and their concern about the impact of quarantine on dental care was obtained. Results: The results revealed that during quarantine 33.5% of people suffered from pain and 30% experienced sensitivity. On attending dental appointment, 43% of patients were concerned about the risk of contaminating their family, 30% are not concerned about COVID-19. Conclusion: Ongoing dental treatment and dental emergencies were major factors leading patients to be more willing to attend dental appointments during quarantine. Dental procedures involving aerosols should be avoided during COVID-19; in addition, some precautionary measures should be implemented during this period.


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