Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2021 | May-August | Volume 15 | Issue 2

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Research Articles

Krishnamoorthy M Aruna, Nandabalan Iyekani, Sundar Kote, Aravinth Vetrivel

Practice of Preventive Dentistry among Private Dental Professionals in Chennai—A Questionnaire Survey

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:45 - 48]

Keywords: Dental caries, Malocclusion, Oral cancer, Periodontal disease, Preventive dentistry

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0088  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To assess the practice of preventive dentistry among the private dental professionals in Chennai. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among the private dental practitioners in Chennai. A sample size of 200 private dental practitioners was randomly selected. Percentage responses were calculated and mean percentages were obtained. Results: Of 200 dentists, only 120 responded (response rate = 60%). The majority of the respondents were MDS holders (60.8%) and also the majority had experience in private practice for about 1–10 years (60%). The desirable practices followed are self-applied fluoride, pit-and-fissure sealant, oral hygiene measures, recall reinforcement, tobacco cessation counseling, screening for a premalignant lesion, and preventive orthodontics. The undesirable practices are diet counseling, professional fluoride application, and nicotine replacement therapy. Most of the dentists opted for preventive measures, only on a risk basis and in cases of absolute indications, thereby giving a desirable response. Conclusion: The study concluded that the practice of preventive measures was encouraging and toward a path of change. Constant efforts must be made by the private dental practitioners to create a path along with preventive dentistry.


Research Articles

Tanum Goel, KR Indushekar, Bhavna G Saraf, Divesh Sardana

Comparative Evaluation of Working Length Using Conventional Radiographic Method, Radiovisiography, and Apex Locator in Single-rooted Permanent Teeth

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:49 - 54]

Keywords: India, Oral, Oral health

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0103  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: The success of any root canal treatment depends on the accurate determination of the working length, biomechanical preparation, and obturation. Radiographs (conventional and radiovisiographs) have remained the mainstay modality in the determination of working length, although they are associated with disadvantages of high radiation exposure and increased treatment time. Apex locators are relatively regularly used equipment in working length determination, but their accuracy has been questioned time and again. Aim and objective: The present study was done to evaluate and compare the accuracy of conventional radiographs, radiovisiographs (RVGs), and apex locators for the determination of working length. Materials and methods: The present in vitro study was carried on 60 extracted single-rooted permanent teeth, and the working length was determined using three methods viz. conventional radiography, RVG, and apex locators. The three methods used were intercompared, and in addition comparison with actual working length of the tooth was also made. Results: Among the three methods, the conventional radiographic method was found to be closest to the actual root canal length followed in order by RVG and electronic apex locator. Intercomparison between all three methods and actual root canal working length was found to be statistically significant except between conventional radiography and actual root canal working length. The difference between the mean values of root canal working length for conventional radiography and actual root canal working length was 0.01 mm, for RVG and actual root canal working length was 0.13 mm, and for electronic apex locator and actual root canal working length was 0.70 mm. Conclusion: All the three methods for the determination of working length used in the study are clinically acceptable and are associated with advantages and disadvantages. Further research and advances may make electronic apex locator the technique of choice in working length determination, or a combination of the RVG and apex locator may be the future in endodontic therapy.


Research Articles

Sarah Bettag, Viyan S Kadhium, Tarek Metwally, Shernel Thomas, Romesh P Nalliah

Evaluating Race and Oral Health in the Four Largest States in United States of America

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:55 - 63]

Keywords: Barriers, Dental health, Health insurance, Oral health

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0104  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: In the United States, racial oral health disparities have shown to be as fundamental as democracy itself. Medicaid and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) have helped alleviate some of those disparities but have not eradicated them. The political structure of the United States affords great freedom to each state that develop regionally specific policies for their own state. Each state in the United States varies in terms of health policy, political position and resources. Therefore, the barriers they face and the most widely accepted solutions will vary from state to state. Due to the state-by-state variation, it is difficult to imagine a nationwide policy that could help. The current analysis targets the four largest US states by population—California, Florida, New York, and Texas. Aim and objective: The aim of our study is to understand and describe trends in oral health outcomes and the existence of any racial disparities in oral health by closely examining sociopolitical trends in the four largest states (by population)—California, Florida, New York, and Texas. Materials and methods: Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to produce this report. We evaluated data between 1999 and 2016 for the four largest states in the United States (by population)—California, Florida, New York and Texas. Trends were identified in the oral health markers in adults aged 18 years and older. Responses were categorized according to participants’ self-reported race and ethnicity. Results: White adults in all four states were more likely to visit a dentist than black and Hispanic adults. White adults over the age of 65 years were less likely to have lost six or more teeth and also less likely to be edentulous. White adults aged 18–64 years were more likely to have retained all teeth than black and Hispanic adults. Conclusion: Despite major improvements in oral health care within the United States, disparities still exist and vary from state to state and is not accorded with the same importance as general health care is. And that certain races/minority groups still experience disproportionate and unacceptable health care compared to their white counterparts.


Research Articles

Anne-Marie Agius, Gabriella Gatt, Arthur RG Cortes, Nikolai J Attard

COVID-19 Pandemic: Effects on the Dental Team and Implications on Dental Public Health

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:64 - 69]

Keywords: Coronavirus, Dentistry, Lifestyle, Stress factors, Work changes

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0106  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To assess the self-reported impact of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the different members of the dental team in public, private, and academic sectors in Malta. Materials and methods: An anonymous online questionnaire on self-reported work and lifestyle changes was designed and administered. Since data were classified as categorical ranks, nonparametric tests were used to compare variables among the different dental team members. Statistical analysis: Multiple-choice question and checklist responses were treated as qualitative variables and were compared among groups using the Chi-square test. Questionnaire data obtained from the Likert scale, in turn, were treated as categorical ranks and therefore assessed using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results from all variables obtained from the questionnaire were compared among the different dental team members. A p <0.05 significance level was used for all the tests. Results: Dental hygienists were significantly more anxious most of the time during the pandemic (p = 0.004). Furthermore, dental hygienists and associate dentists were significantly more anxious about contracting COVID-19 themselves (p = 0.005, p = 0.001) or one of their family members (p = 0.024 and p = 0.001). Both were also more anxious about not being able to work as much as they used to (p = 0.070, p = 0.008). Dental clinic owners presented significantly fewer work changes than associates (p <0.001). Conclusion: All dental team members were affected by this pandemic regarding anxiety due to health concerns, financial burdens as well as abrupt work, and lifestyle changes. However, dental hygienists were significantly more affected by the pandemic than any of the other dental team members.



Vrushali R Khobragade, Prashanthkumar Vishwakarma, Arun S Dodamani, Minal M Kshirsagar, Sulakshana N Raut, Rahul N Deokar

Herbal Mouthwash for the Management of Oral Diseases: A Review on the Current Literature

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:70 - 77]

Keywords: Herbal mouthwash, Oral disease, Review

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0085  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Several different varieties of mouthwashes are accessible to us nowadays, including chemical as well as herbal formulations. Appropriate mouthwash can be selected depending on the oral condition, risk, and efficiency of mouthwash. As mentioned in the literature also Mother Nature has provided us abundant medicinal herbs with antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Though we are having very scarce data on the medicinal properties of these herbal plants, they are still in use in treating various periodontal diseases and other oral diseases. Knowing scientific expression of the actual effects of the herbal medicine is at most important for the beneficiaries. In the course of this bibliographical revision, papers were collected to validate the ancestral uses of herbs and conclude that the use of plants to treat oral conditions should be based on the experimental studies, verifying their suitability for dental treatments. Oral healthcare professionals would find this review helpful for accurate mouthwash selection while dealing with different conditions of the oral cavity.



Payal Kansara, Tikal Kansara, Arjun K Kini, Bapanaiah Penugonda

COVID-19 Crisis and Precautions in Dental Practice: A Review Report

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:78 - 83]

Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Dental clinic/lab, Dental practice, Dentistry, Infection control, Precautions against COVID-19, Virology

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0098  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: In December 2019, a new deadly, highly contagious virus, namely coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbroke in Wuhan city, China, from wildlife trading and consumption. Till mid-February, the virus spread to almost all continents of the world with a death toll in the 1000s. As this novel coronavirus lacked specific treatment, the focus was directed on prevention. Types of studies reviewed: As COVID-19 was new to the world, all the available literature including original articles, case reports, World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control recommendations, and various other government and nongovernment institute guidelines were reviewed to make this report. Results: Even though dental procedures have the highest chance of transmission, there are lacked recommendations on precautions and preventing the spread of this deadly virus in dental practice. After analyzing the above available literature, we outlined recommendations on the specific cohort of patients to provide dental treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we also outlined the proper use of personal protective equipment, infection control in dental practice, and a special focus on treatment during and after the COVID-19 pandemics. Dental implications: With proper knowledge and understanding of prevention in a dental setup, the chances of cross infection can be substantially reduced.



Prasanta Majumder, Shyamalendu Laskar

Salami Publication: An Outlook from the Lens of Ethical Perspective

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:84 - 86]

Keywords: Publication ethics, Research ethics, Salami publication, Salami slicing

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0099  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


In the increasing quest for the publication of research papers, the authors become overzealous to section their research articles which can help in portraying a big number of research papers for the credit of the author. The scientist community and the medical fraternity value the researcher based on their number of publications with the researcher having a smaller number of so-called acceptable number of research papers getting vanished in the crowd of renowned researchers. This narrative review aims at exploring the ethical considerations related to salami publication (salami slicing) in research. It was concluded that salami slicing is not entirely an ethical misconduct. However, authors and editors of the journals have a liability to protect the research integrity by stating that this piece of research is a salami publication.



Neha Agrawal, Anshul Aggarwal, Amit K Garg, Narinder Dev Gupta, Rajendra K Tewari, Juhi Gupta

Oral Health-related Quality of Life: Current Status and Future Implications

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:87 - 91]

Keywords: Oral health, Patient outcomes, Psychosocial factors, Quality of life

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0101  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Quality of life (QoL) is relatively new but a rapidly growing notion in the discipline of dental or oral health. People's perception of the mode in which oral diseases, conditions, and treatments influence their symptoms, functions, and well-being is referred to as oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The effects of oral health and diseases on QoL are the area of research that examines the functional, psychological, social, and economical consequences of oral disorders. The outcomes of OHRQoL have evolved as a means to comprehend and mold not only the clinical practice, dental research, and dental education but also that of the community at large. The idea of “oral health-related quality of life” incarcerates the aim of the new perspective, that is, the ultimate target of dental care, primarily good oral health, should no longer simply be seen as the absence of caries or periodontal disease but also the patient's mental and social well-being should be considered equally and ensure access of cure for everyone.



Sumit Munjal, Seema Munjal

Pandemic COVID-19 and Its Implications in Dentistry: Overt Actions to Deal with Covert Threat

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:92 - 97]

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, Dentistry in COVID-19, Management, Viral infection and dentist

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0102  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Currently, transmission routes are still to be determined, but common ones include direct transmission (cough, sneeze, and droplet inhalation transmission) and contact transmission (contact with oral, nasal, and eye mucous membranes). Due to the characteristics of dental settings, the risk of cross infections may be high between dental practitioners and patients. Aims and objectives: This review aimed at presenting a recent update on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19) with regards to prevention and control. In the unlikely event of providing dental care to suspected or confirmed cases of the new pandemic, dentists must be cognizant of dire precautions. Materials and methods: A thorough literature search was carried out electronically between 2019 and 2020 present using appropriate keywords. The results were reviewed and prioritized, and the findings were compiled. Out of a total of 94 publications strategically obtained, 23 studies were included in the end for review. Results: Patients are managed according to the severity of the virulence, and all the possible drug trials have been instigated. The menace being new, the limitations of the study do exist. Vaccines are the most effective strategy since they are more cost-effective than the treatment. Conclusion: Identifying a suspected case of COVID-19 is the only way out to mitigate the spread of this novel infection in dental institutions. Clinical significance: Dental health-care providers ought to keep updated in all respects as we are among the healthcare workers bearing the brunt of the situation.



K Nithya, Avaneeth Ram

Changing Perceptions of Pediatric Dental Practice during COVID Era

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:98 - 101]

Keywords: COVID-19, Cross-infection, Pandemic, Pediatric dentistry

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0105  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emergence caused a global pandemic-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and became one of the most important challenges to the healthcare profession. Adults are more infected while children also show mild clinical course. The risk of transmission of COVID-19 viruses is more for pediatric patients during dental treatments. Oral health prevention during COVID-19 pandemic plays a major role in pediatric patients. Through appropriate behavior management, pediatric dentists can minimize the probability of SARS-CoV-2 cross-infection. Proper care along with infection control strategies and newer approaches of management of children have to be incorporated in the pediatric dentistry after COVID-19 period.


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