Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2019 | September-December | Volume 13 | Issue 3

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Original Article

Rakan S Shaheen, Mohammed M Aldosari, Humod A Altuwaijri, Faris T Arnous, Abdullah A Alamro, Rayan A Almarshedi

Efficiency of Flossing Technique Application among Dental Students at Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2019] [Month:September-December] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:63 - 68]

Keywords: Education, Efficiency, Flossing, Hygiene, Student

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0051  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the students\' efficiency of flossing theoretically and mechanically. Materials and methods: Disclosing solution was used to detect the plaque clinically following the plaque index by Silness and Loe. The clinical examination was done three times, once before any oral hygiene measure, then after brushing with a toothbrush only and finally after flossing. Each participant filled a questionnaire on their oral hygiene habits, knowledge of flossing importance and their protocol for dealing with their patients\' oral hygiene. Results: A group of 84% of the students use the dental, 52% had the dental floss recommended to them by a dentist, 77% believe that the dental floss does not harm the teeth and gingiva, and 79% believe that neglecting to floss can lead to the development of both dental caries and periodontal diseases. Only 50% of the students educate all their patients on flossing, and the majority do it by a demonstration on a plastic jaw or verbally only. The examinations revealed that a mean of 68% plaque was found on the teeth before any oral hygiene measure with the majority being grade II, a mean of 33.53% was found after brushing only with the majority being grade I and a mean of 10.82% was found after flossing with the majority being grade I as well. Only 39% of the students were able to achieve complete plaque removal, and the posterior areas had the highest percentages of persisted plaque after flossing. Conclusion: The students\' flossing technique needs to be emphasized during their education, alongside the importance of educating all the patients on flossing and monitoring their efficiency throughout the treatment and maintenance visits. Clinical significance: Students need to be able to floss their teeth efficiently to transport that knowledge to their patients and follow-up its application throughout the visits.


Original Article

Bhagyalakshmi Avinash, Avinash B Shivamallu, Suma Shekar

Comparison of Reduction of Dental Plaque and Gingivitis between Herbal and Nonherbal Dentifrices and Mouth Rinses in Orthodontic Cases: A Randomized Single-blind Clinical Study

[Year:2019] [Month:September-December] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:69 - 72]

Keywords: Gingival index, Herbal dentrifrices, Nonherbal dentrifrices, Oral hygiene, Plaque index

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0059  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this research was to examine the oral hygiene efficacy between herbal and nonherbal dentifrices and mouth wash in orthodontic cases. Materials and methods: The study was a single center, single blind, parallel arm, randomized controlled clinical trial with an allocation ratio of 1:1. The sample size was 40 participants, irrespective of sex. For all the participants, oral hygiene status was assessed at three occasions during the study. The first assessment of plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) was done before starting the orthodontic treatment (T1). In all cases, a standard preadjusted edgewise technique was used in both dental arches after full mouth scaling. Three weeks after the placement of the appliance, second scoring was done (T2). After the second scoring, the patients were divided into two groups, each group consisting of 20 patients. Group I—herbal dentifrice and mouth wash and group II—nonherbal dentifrice and mouthwash. 3 weeks after the use of herbal and nonherbal dentifrices, the third scoring (T3) was done. Results: Between T1 and T2, there was a significant increase in PI (p = 0.005) and significant decrease in GI (p = 0.000). At T3, no significant difference in PI or GI was found (p = 0.051). Conclusion: The present study has proved that there is no difference in the type of dentifrice, i.e., herbal or nonherbal for the effectiveness of oral hygiene. Both the types of dentifrice provided adequate oral hygiene maintenance. Clinical significance: More importance to the method of brushing should be given than the type of dentifrices.


Original Article

Prabhu Subramani, Abishek Mohan

Association between Smartphone Addiction and Body Mass Index amongst Dental Students

[Year:2019] [Month:September-December] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:73 - 76]

Keywords: Body mass index, Dental students, Smartphone addiction

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0053  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Smartphones had become inevitable in the present generation and it had made the life to live with ease. However, on the negative side it had brought many people to live in virtual world taking a toll on their physical, mental health and wellbeing. Dental students use smartphones for various reasons like learning, communication, etc., the present study was undertaken to assess the association between smartphone addiction and body mass index (BMI) among dental students. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study employing cluster random sampling was conducted among n = 171, dental students in Chennai, India. Smartphone addiction scale–short version (SAS–SV) was used to assess smartphone addiction and BMI was assessed by measuring the height and weight of the dental students. Results: n = 89 (52%) of the study subjects were addicted to smartphone. The male students were more addicted to smartphone than female students. There is a statistically significant association between years of smartphone usage and smartphone addiction. 60.8% of the study subjects had “Normal” BMI. Conclusion: Smartphone addiction is significantly higher among dental students affecting 52% of the study population. There is no significant association between smartphone addiction and BMI amongst dental students.


Original Article

Yosef S Hatan, Mohammad A Baseer, Jamal A Alsanea, Sultan Binalrimal, Mohammed A Abuhassna, Yousef MJ Alziyadi

Impact of Periodontal Conditions on Oral Health-related Quality of Life among Adults in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2019] [Month:September-December] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:7] [Pages No:77 - 83]

Keywords: General oral health assessment index-Ar, Gingivitis, Impact, Oral health-related quality of life, Periodontitis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0055  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Oral health is an essential and integral part of general health and it contributes to overall health-related quality of life (QoL). Measuring oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is important to obtain comprehensive data for oral health promotion programs as well as effective allocation of health resources. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of periodontal conditions on OHRQoL measured by using Arabic version of general oral health assessment index (GOHAI-Ar) among adult patients seeking dental care in university dental clinics in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenient sample of 200 dental patients (male = 140, female = 60) attending University Dental Clinics in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patient's socioeconomic status, smoking, toothbrushing, and flossing habits were recorded. Periodontal parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. The impact of periodontal conditions on OHRQoL was assessed using GOHAI-Ar questionnaire. Results: An overall mean GOHAI-Ar score of 27.33 ± 6.81 was observed among the study participants. Patients with gingivitis and periodontitis demonstrated mean GOHAI-Ar scores of 27.33 ± 6.81 and 27.55 ± 6.77. Arabic version of general oral health assessment index showed statistically significant differences in different age groups (p = 0.001). Married patients (27.89 ± 6.55) showed significantly higher GOHAI-Ar score compared to the unmarried (25.54 ± 7.36, p = 0.041). Patient's with regular brushing habits (28.95 ± 7.33) compared to irregular toothbrushing (26.64 ± 6.48) showed significantly higher GOHAI-Ar (p = 0.020). Similarly, subjects performing dental flossing (32.27 ± 6.6) showed significantly higher GOHAI-Ar scores compared to those who did not perform (26.72 ± 6.60) (p = 0.000). Conclusion: Adverse periodontal conditions can result in poor OHRQoL in patients seeking dental care in university clinics. Age, marital status, toothbrushing, and flossing habits were significantly associated with the OHRQoL in periodontally affected patients.


Original Article

Nour AHM BinSalem, Navin A Ingle, Mohammad A Baseer, Jamal A Alsanea, Mansour K Assery, Asma H Almeslet

Oral Health Conditions and Treatment Needs of Athletes in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2019] [Month:September-December] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:84 - 89]

Keywords: Athletes, Dental caries, Extraction, Oral health, Periodontal disease, Scaling, Treatment needs

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0054  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Oral health is integral to general health. Poor oral health has negative impact on oral health-related quality of life, thereby affecting athlete's performance and training. Aims and objectives: To determine the oral health conditions and treatment requirements amongst athletes by examining the dental records at Prince Faisal Bin Fahad Bin Abdulaziz Sports Medicine Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A descriptive study based on the oral health records of athletes seeking care at Prince Faisal Bin Fahad Bin Abdulaziz Sports Medicine Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was carried out. Data of 331 athletes who underwent oral health screening in the past 5 years (January 2014–December 2018) within the dental department of Prince Faisal Bin Fahad Bin Abdulaziz Sports Medicine Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were obtained and analyzed for oral health conditions and treatment needs of the athletes. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Mann–Whitney, and Kruskal–Wallis tests were applied to the data to compare variables. Results: Finding revealed 235 (71%) tooth decay and 101 (31.5%) need for teeth extraction among athletes. The mean ranks of extracted teeth were higher in the age group of 30–35 years (206.72) followed by 26–30 years (166.15), 15–20 years (165.79), and 21–25 years (155.19) with significant difference (KWH = 7.928, df = 3, p = 0.048). Athletes aged 30–35 years (137.37) demonstrated significantly higher mean ranks of teeth extractions compared to 15–20 years (109.65) (MW-U = 654.500, Z = −2.817, p = 0.005). Similarly, athletes aged 30–35 years (66.54) demonstrated significantly higher mean ranks of teeth extractions compared to 21–25 years (49.89) (MW-U = 1739.500, Z = −2.343, p = 0.005). Gingival status showed significant differences across various age groups of the athletes (Chi-square = 8.375, df = 3, p = 0.039) Conclusion: Data from Prince Faisal Bin Fahad Bin Abdulaziz Sports Medicine Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, suggest that the oral health of the athletes needs improvement especially with regards to the dental caries, teeth extractions, and periodontal conditions. Hence, oral health promotional and preventive programs should be initiated to improve oral health of the athletes.


Original Article

Nabila Ahmed Sedky

Perception of Middle and High School Students about Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry

[Year:2019] [Month:September-December] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:11] [Pages No:90 - 100]

Keywords: Concept of preventive dentistry, Dental caries and oral conditions, Middle and secondary school students, Perception and attitudes

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0052  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objectives: Assessing perception and attitudes about oral health and preventive dentistry among middle and secondary school students at public schools in Buraidah, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: Systematic random sampling technique was applied to choose a total sample of 1,496 male and female students. Students were enquired to fulfill an anonymous self-administered questionnaire consisting of 42 questions at the same meeting. Students were asked on oral health and preventive dentistry. Statistical analyses were carried out at significance level <0.05 and 0.01. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between male and female students concerning their knowledge about oral health. Male students had poor awareness than females about “dental caries and oral conditions” and “dental health” (t test = 2.890*, p = 0.004) and (t test = 4.447*, p = 0.004), respectively. For perception about preventive dentistry, female students had statistically significant poorer acquaintance about “Dental sealants for caries prevention” and “Concept of preventive dentistry” than males (t test = −4.868*, p = 0.000) and (t test = −4.385*, p = 0.000), respectively. Moreover, middle school students demonstrated statistically significant lack of awareness about all types of oral health comparing to secondary school participants (t test = 20.774*, p = 0.000), (t test = 29.699*, p = 0.000), (t test = 23.061*, p = 0.000), and (t test = 25.802*, p = 0.000). For preventive dentistry, poor insight was showed among middle school students compared to secondary school participants for the categories “fluoride as a preventive measure” (t test = 20.367*, p = 0.000), “Prevention of oral and dental diseases” (t test = 15.924*, p = 0.000), and “concept of preventive dentistry” (t test = 29.928*, p = 0.000), while secondary school students were statistically unaware about “dental sealants for caries prevention” (t test = −4.699*, p = 0.000). Conclusion: Perception about oral health among the participants was generally poor.


Original Article

Ajitha Kanduluru, Manasa Srinivas, Shweta H Lingaraj, Suma B Adapa, Mayura Tonpe, JayaKumar H Lakkappa

Assessment of Paramount Source of Oral Health Information among Outpatients Attending Dental College in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

[Year:2019] [Month:September-December] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:101 - 105]

Keywords: Health communication, Media, Parents, Source of information

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0056  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Health communication is a process necessary to inform individuals pave way toward desired changes in human health behavior and contribute community participation to achieve predetermined health goals. Hence, the present study aims to assess the paramount source of oral health information among outpatients attending one of the dental colleges in Bengaluru city. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,800 outpatients attending Vydehi Dental College, Bengaluru, during a period of 1 month (November 1–31, 2011). A self-structured close-ended questionnaire was used to collect data about demographic details and their source of information regarding oral health. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test using SPSS version 21. Results: Among the total study population, highest percentages (28.0%) of them were between the age group of 26–35 years, 56% of them were male, 32.0% of them were graduates, and 25.5% of them were clerical. In the present study, the major source of oral health information was parents (21.1%), followed by friends (20.1%), television (19.5%), and grandparents (16.6%). Study shows highly significant association (p value = 0.001) for all questions with respect to gender, age, occupation, and education. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the parents, peers, and media are the paramount source for the oral health information among the study population. Hence, there is a need to target these groups to reinforce the oral health education.



Sathyasree Madeswaran, Deepshika Saravanan, Saravanan Rethinam, Kavitha Muthu

Oral Mucositis: Role of the Dentist

[Year:2019] [Month:September-December] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:6] [Pages No:106 - 111]

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Oral health, Oral mucositis, Radiation therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0057  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Oral mucositis is the inflammation of the oral mucosa that occurs as a side effect of cytotoxic cancer therapy. Though the condition cannot be prevented, steps can be taken to decrease the severity and for the desired therapeutic outcome of cancer therapy. The communication between the oncologist and dentist becomes vital for the patient benefit. A search of the resources through Medline and Google Scholar was made to comprehend the pathobiology, clinical characteristics, and various therapeutic methods related to oral mucositis. A total of 63 articles were chosen for reference, which mostly includes recent year review papers. After the final screening, 29 research papers were selected for the current study. Controlling the predisposing risk factors pertaining to the oral cavity and recording the baseline oral health status before the commencement of cancer therapy is crucial. Patients are counseled for proper oral hygiene routine, and lifelong follow-up.



Sanju Malik, Smriti Kaushik, I Vinith

Prosthodontic Management of a 10-day-old Neonate with Cleft Palate Using a Feeding Appliance: A Case Report

[Year:2019] [Month:September-December] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:112 - 114]

Keywords: Cleft palate, Feeding plate, Neonate

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0058  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Cleft lip and palate have a complex mode of inheritance and affects several systems and their functions such as facial growth, eruption of teeth, feeding of the newborn, speech, and hearing. It can be associated with many syndromes. Fabrication of a feeding appliance helps with the proper nourishment which has a positive impact on the growth and development of the infant. Clinician should have proper knowledge and understanding of the dental materials and specific impression techniques used in the fabrication of feeding plate.


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