Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2019 | May-August | Volume 13 | Issue 2

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Original Article

Kishor Tom

Dental Caries Status in Mentally Challenged Children in Comparison with Normal Children

[Year:2019] [Month:May-August] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:31 - 33]

Keywords: DMFT/dft index, Mentally challenged children, OHI-S, Oral health status

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0050  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the oral health conditions and dental caries status in disabled and healthy children. Materials and methods: Two groups of randomly selected children aged 3–12 years were examined. The first group comprised 100 children with disabilities (cerebral palsy, mental retardation, Down syndrome, autism, and hearing–speaking disorders) and the second (control) group included 100 healthy children. The examined children were selected from a normal school and from schools that take care of the disabled children. A clinical examination was performed using a mirror and probe, which revealed the presence of dental caries as well as missing (extracted) and filled teeth. All clinically detected cavitations were recorded as dental caries. The degree of oral hygiene was evaluated according to the OHI-S index values, which were determined by marking the plaque with 1% eozine solution. Results: The values of OHI-S index ranged from 3.9 to 4.56 in disabled children and from 2.84 to 2.94 in healthy children. In disabled children, the average dft values were 3.52 in deciduous teeth and 5.34 in mixed dentition. In healthy children, the average dft values were 1.53 in deciduous teeth and 5.21 in mixed dentition. The average DMFT index in disabled children was 1.51 for mixed and 6.48 for permanent dentitions. In healthy children, the average DMFT values were 1.33 in mixed and 4.84 in permanent dentition. Conclusion: In general, the results revealed a significantly poor level of oral hygiene and quite a high level of caries prevalence in disabled compared to the healthy children, accentuating the need to organize preventive care measurements and improve dental care among the disabled.


Original Article

Ali A Asiri, Mohammad A Baseer, Jamal A Alsanea, Sultan Binalrimal, Asma H Almeslet, Ghada Alotaibi

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Dental Health Professionals Toward Management of Dental Waste in the Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2019] [Month:May-August] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:34 - 38]

Keywords: Attitude, Dentist, Dental assistant, Dental hygienist, Dental waste management, Knowledge, Practice

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0048  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: During the process of oral healthcare, infectious and toxic waste is produced within the clinics. Hence, dental professionals are required to know in depth about the proper management of dental waste in order to minimize the risks of cross-infection and the effects of toxins released into the environment affecting human health. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of dental health professionals (DHP) toward management of dental waste in the Aseer region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among dentist, dental hygienist, dental assistant (DHP) practicing in the Aseer region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A structured, close-ended and self-administered questionnaire consisting of 26 items along with the demographic information was distributed to the 450 DHP, and 431 responses were obtained and analyzed for the knowledge, attitude, and practices toward dental waste management. Results: The mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores toward dental waste management were found to be 10.95 ± 1.98, 6.50 ± 1.07, and 3.07 ± 1.02, respectively. Female DHP and those working in the private dental clinics demonstrated a significantly higher knowledge, attitude, and practice scores compared to their counter parts. Knowledge of dental waste management differed significantly in different age groups, while the experience of DHP demonstrated significant differences in knowledge as well as the attitude of DHP toward dental waste management. Dental assistants demonstrated the highest knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of dental waste management compared to the dental hygienist and dentist. DHP showed a significant positive correlation between knowledge–attitude (r = 0.214, p = 0.000), knowledge–practice (r = 0.208, p = 0.000), and attitude–practice (r = 0.206, p = 0.000). Conclusion: DHP participated in this study demonstrated a high knowledge, positive attitude, and inadequate dental waste management practices in the Aseer region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Hence, there is a need for regular training, workshops, and continuous educational programs on dental waste management.


Original Article

Anusha Raghavan, Nagarajan Srinivasan, Afraa SM Sherif, Natrajan Somasundaram, Muniyappan Govindhan, Madan Kumar Parangimalai Diwakar

Association between Mean Age of Eruption of the Permanent Teeth and Body Mass Index among School-going Children of 7–17 Years of Age in Chennai City

[Year:2019] [Month:May-August] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:39 - 43]

Keywords: Body mass index, Children, Eruption, Permanent teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0047  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the association between mean age of eruption of the permanent teeth and body mass index (BMI) among 7–17-years-old school-going children in Chennai city. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 school-going children of age 7–17 years. It was carried out by a single examiner and an average of 50 children was examined per day. Clinical examination was done to assess the eruption status of the permanent teeth which was categorized according to the criteria given by Pahkala et al.1 Individual height and weight were noted and further BMI was calculated. Results: A total of 196 (49.1%) boys and 204 (50.9%) girls were assessed. Among the 400 children assessed, 19 (4.75%) were underweight, 321 (80.25%) belonged to normal category, 41 (10.25%) were at the risk of overweight, and 19 (4.75%) were obese. Overall, female children were found to have earlier eruption of the permanent teeth compared to males. Also, it was found that the mean age of eruption increased with increasing BMI indicating delayed eruption in obese children. Conclusion: The present study shows a significant association between BMI and mean age of eruption of the permanent teeth among school-going children of 7–17 years of age in Chennai city. Further longitudinal multicentric studies are recommended to determine the exact relationship between BMI and dental development.


Original Article

Salman A Alkallabi, Navin A Ingle, Mohammad A Baseer, Jamal A Alsanea, Sara A AIshammery, Asma S Almeslet

Self-reported Quality of Life among Dental Students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2019] [Month:May-August] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:44 - 49]

Keywords: Dental interns, Dental students, Postgraduate, Quality of life, Undergraduate, World Health Organization-Quality of life-BREF

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0045  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Adverse physical and mental health conditions can affect the quality of life (QoL) and academic performance of undergraduate and postgraduate dental students and dental interns throughout their education. Aim: To evaluate the QoL of undergraduate dental students, interns, and postgraduate dental students using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF instrument in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among undergraduate dental students, dental interns, and postgraduate dental students from various dental colleges of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the first semester of the academic year 2018–19. Information pertaining to the QoL was obtained by using a well-designed WHOQOL–BREF questionnaire, consisting of various domains of the QoL. Results: A total of 518 dental students (UG = 273, DI = 135, PG = 110) belonging to either gender (male = 196 and female = 322) from different academic years participated in this study. The overall Cronbach's a coefficient of the WHOQOL–BREF questionnaire was 0.793. The highest mean score was found with the social relationships domain (62.14 ± 18.64), while physical health demonstrated the lowest mean score (52.15 ± 12.33). Dental students receiving government sponsorship for their education showed significantly higher mean scores for the psychological (57.88 ± 12.19 vs 53.09 ± 11.97, t = −4.498, p = 0.000) and environmental (62.93 ± 14.54 vs 57.94 ± 13.46, t = −4.043, p = 0.000) domains than the self-sponsored dental students. Similarly, government-sponsored dental students showed significantly higher QoL (3.93 ± 0.75 vs 3.52 ± 0.91, t = −5.678, p = 0.000) and satisfaction with health (3.79 ± 0.79 vs 3.21 ± 0.95, t = −7.509, p = 0.000) compared to the self-sponsored dental students. Conclusion: Dental interns demonstrated high overall QoL and satisfaction with health, while dental students receiving government funding for dental education showed higher scores for psychological health and environmental health domains. There is a need to improve the QoL of the students by considering various measures.


Original Article

Sourav C Bidyasagar, Pratibha Taneja

Tobacco Use and Tooth Loss among Adults Residing in Faridabad, Haryana, India

[Year:2019] [Month:May-August] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:50 - 53]

Keywords: Smokers, Smokeless tobacco, Tobacco use, Tooth loss

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0044  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Periodontal disease and dental caries are the most common causes of tooth loss among adults. Tobacco-related habits have also been identified as major behavioral risk factors for a variety of oral health-related conditions, such as periodontal diseases and tooth loss. Aim: To assess the association between tobacco use and tooth loss among adults aged 25 years and above in Faridabad district. Materials and methods: The present study was a cross-sectional observational study. Data were collected through personal interviews and clinical examination. The clinical examination was conducted for the assessment of clinical variables, such as dentition status, according to WHO, Oral Health Survey: Basic Methods (2013), 5th edition. The data collected were entered in the Excel sheet using Microsoft Excel Software by the examiner. Data were analyzed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21, IBM Inc. Inferential statistics was performed using the nonparametric tests, i.e., Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The maximum mean numbers of missing teeth were reported among only smokers (1.44), followed by only smokeless tobacco users (1.43), then both smokeless and smoked tobacco users (1.16), and least was reported by nonusers (0.21). The maximum mean numbers of mobile teeth were reported among both smokeless and smoked tobacco users (2.16), followed by only smokers (2.14), and then only smokeless tobacco users (1.45). The least was reported by nonusers (0.51). On post hoc analysis for missing and mobile teeth, significant differences were seen. Conclusion: The tobacco-related habits were found to be significantly associated with both an increase in the mean tooth loss as well as mobility among the study participants.



Masayuki Ueno, Takashi Zaitsu, Akiko Oshiro, Yoko Kawaguchi

Relationship between Medical and Dental Health Expenditures of Industrial Workers

[Year:2019] [Month:May-August] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:54 - 58]

Keywords: Dental health, Health expenditure, Health insurance, Medical health, Workplace

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0046  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: There has been little research exploring the expenditures associated with medical and dental health services and their interrelationship. The purposes of this cross-sectional study were to describe features of annual health expenditure and to examine the relationship between medical and dental health expenditures. Materials and methods: Data on health expenditure from a total of 9,149 haulage workers aged 18–75 years (7,343 men and 1,806 women), who belonged to a health insurance association, were drawn for the analysis using electric health insurance claims from January through December in 2015. In-patient and out-patient fees as well as the corresponding pharmaceutical fees reported in the health insurance claims were aggregated to derive total medical and dental health expenditures. Results: The medical services utilization rate (77.4%) was significantly higher than the dental services utilization rate (42.0%) (p <0.001), and both medical and dental services utilization rates increased with age (p for trend <0.001). Per capita medical and dental health expenditures also significantly increased with age (p for trend <0.001). Per capita medical health expenditure in workers who used dental services was significantly higher than that in those who did not use dental services in persons in the 40 years and older age groups (p <0.05). Conclusion: The present findings indicate a positive association between medical and dental health expenditures. Therefore, an improvement in oral health through workplace preventive measures may bring decrease not only of dental health expenditure but also of medical and total health expenditures in the industry.



Rubiya Parveen, Veena A Patil, Pranitha Surve

A Case Report on Epulis Fissuratum

[Year:2019] [Month:May-August] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:59 - 61]

Keywords: Denture-induced hyperplasia, Epulis fissuratum, Removable partial denture

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0049  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this case report was to diagnose an abnormal growth along a ill-fitting maxillary removable partial denture in a 60-year-old woman and the surgical management of that lesion. Background: Epulis fissuratum, reactive fibrous hyperplasia, or denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia are the various names attributed to a reactive tissue response to chronic irritation and trauma caused by a badly fitted prosthesis. Persistent trauma to oral mucosa may predispose the patient to a carcinoma. We present a case of faulty denture and the resultant epulis fissuratum in a 60-year-old woman. Case description: A 60-year-old woman is presented to the Department of Periodontics with the chief complaint of an abnormal growth along the anterior border of her ill-fitting maxillary partial denture. An intraoral examination revealed a fibrous mass, which was polypoid and had a soft consistency and a smooth texture. The lesion was diagnosed as epulis fissuratum or a denture-induced hyperplasia and surgically managed the lesion with a scalpel and electrocautery. Postoperative instructions were given and a follow-up evaluation was done for 3 months. Conclusion: To prevent the occurrence of the epulis fissuratum lesion is to perform standard prosthetic treatments on the patients and carry out the necessary maintenance procedures of the denture as soon as possible. The maintenance and hygiene-related instructions have to be given. Clinical significance: A poorly fitted prosthesis can give rise to many problems such as pain, discomfort in mastication, difficulty in speech, and epulis fissuratum. Epulis fissuratum is an tissue overgrowth in the mucobuccal fold, induced by chronic trauma from an ill-fitting prosthesis. In this case report, we discuss a case of epulis fissuratum in a 60-year-old woman and the surgical management of the lesion.


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