Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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2019 | January-April | Volume 13 | Issue 1

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Guest Editorial

Ashish Kumar

Healthy periodontium…… Healthy teeth… Good for dental practice

[Year:2019] [Month:January-April] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

   DOI: 10.5005/johcd-13-1-iv  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Krishnan Lakshmi, Anusha R, Kiran Iyer, Madankumar P Diwakar

Development of a Tool to Assess Barriers Faced by Children with Special Needs in Utilizing Dental Care Services

[Year:2019] [Month:January-April] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1 - 4]

Keywords: Barriers, Caregivers, Cross-sectional, Dentist, Disabilities

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0037  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To develop and validate a questionnaire based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) model of healthcare disparities to assess the barriers faced by children with special needs in utilizing dental care services, as perceived by their caregivers and dental professionals, in Chennai city. Materials and methods: Based on the IOM model, two questionnaires were developed to assess barriers to dental care utilization from the dentist and caregiver's perspective. Content, face validation was done. Test-retest reliability was checked. Results: Scale- Content validity index (S-CVI) value of 0.8 was obtained for both the scales. Cronbach's alpha value of 0.52 and 0.62 was obtained cfor the dentist and caregiver questionnaire, respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed that the developed questionnaire was a reliable and valid tool to assess barriers faced by children with special needs in utilizing dental care services in an Indian context. Clinical significance: The present study paves the way for further research on barriers encountered by children with special needs and its myriad implications in developing countries like India.



Omoigberai B Braimoh, Grace O Alade

Gingivitis and Periodontitis among the Elderly in Port Harcourt Nigeria: A Population-based Study

[Year:2019] [Month:January-April] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:5 - 9]

Keywords: Elderly, Gingivitis, Oral health education, Periodontitis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0038  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Data on the periodontal health status of elderly in Rivers State are uncommon, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and describe the determinants of periodontal disease among the elderly in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Subjects and methods: The study was an observational research design in which data on periodontal health status was collected by a clinical oral examination. Subjects were selected by systematic random sampling and data collected using a self-developed questionnaire. Data analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20 IBM, Armonk, New York). Relationship between variables was established using Chi-square and significance determined at 0.05 alpha level. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was 327 (60.2%) and 190 (35.0%), respectively. More than half 293 (53.9%) of the subjects had calculus on their teeth, and 137 (25.2%) had Shallow pocket. Gingivitis and periodontitis were significantly higher in males than females and the old elderly compared to the young elderly. Cigarette smokers had less gingivitis and more periodontitis than nonsmokers and those who engaged in once daily tooth cleaning had a higher prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis compared to subjects who cleaned their teeth twice or more daily. Conclusion: The burden of periodontal disease was high among the elderly and the periodontal health status was poor with a high prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis. Therefore, oral health education, enlightenment, and motivation towards the seeking of oral care are recommended in this group.



Sara A AIshammery

Professional Ethical Consideration in Esthetic Dental Practice: A Survey among Dentists in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2019] [Month:January-April] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:10 - 13]

Keywords: Ethics, Esthetic dentistry, Saudi dentists

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0039  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the professional ethical consideration in esthetic dental practice of the dentists practicing in Ar-Riyadh region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A modified version of the questionnaire on dental ethics in esthetic dentistry (Bernstein, 2008), written in both English and Arabic was prepared. The questionnaire, designed to obtain information from dentists regarding their beliefs in ethics in esthetic dentistry was administered to dentists practicing in the Ar-Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study comprised of 305 participants who returned the completed questionnaire. Results: In total, 400 questionnaires were distributed with an overall response rate of 76.25%. The respondents comprised of 256 Saudi and 49 non-Saudi dentists. The role of the dentists in persuading and encouraging patients to have cosmetic treatment and the role that a patient's finances played in influencing esthetic dental treatment, tooth reduction was not found to be significant for different clinical titles, gender and years of experience except Saudi dentists who reported significantly higher emphasis on the role of the dentist in persuading and encouraging the patient to undergo cosmetic treatment. A significant majority of the dentists stated that they would reduce less than 2mm of tooth structure and they had a full obligation to TMJ and occlusion while performing an esthetic procedure and also they reported journals as a source of their information Conclusion: Within the limitation of the study it can be concluded that ethics comprises of basic values and practice issues, Basic values do not change however, practice issues may be influenced by experience and clinical title and It is interesting that gender does not seem to influence the ethics of practicing esthetic dentistry, so as ending ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do, and what is right to do.



Harshala S Patil, Amit S Handa, Uddhav Y Alane

A Comparative Evaluation of Tooth Size Discrepancies in Different Types of Malocclusions by using Bolton's Analysis: An Odontometric Study

[Year:2019] [Month:January-April] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:14 - 16]

Keywords: Beed, Bolton's ratio, Tooth-size discrepancy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0040  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Patients attending orthodontic clinics normally complain of crowding or spacing or both, which represents big esthetic and functional problems. The link between the upper and lower teeth sizes and its repercussions on the occlusal harmony of these dental arches is a cause of major concern in orthodontic treatment. Hence, this study is carried out to compare the anterior and overall ratios of tooth sizes in different types of Angle's malocclusions. For this study, we examined and selected 100 patients from the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Aditya Dental College, Beed, Maharashtra, India and divided into 4 malocclusion groups namely Angle's class I (n = 25), Angle's class II (n = 50) [class II division 1 (n = 25), class II division 2 (n = 25)], Angle's class III (n = 25). For all selected patients the impressions were taken, casts were poured and models were prepared. Then the greatest width of the teeth from the first molar to the contralateral first molar was measured by using a caliper on the study models. The anterior and overall ratios between the maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated by using Bolton's analysis. All the parameters were subjected to statistical analysis.



Saad A Al Hazzani, Entessar Z Alanazi, Shaikha A Al Bejadi, Maha A Al Wabil

Prevalence of Dental Caries and Its Relationship with Oral Hygiene and Type of Female Schools in Al-Kharj City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2019] [Month:January-April] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:17 - 20]

Keywords: Dental caries, DMFT, Gingival index, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Oral hygiene, Prevalence, Prevalence caries, Plaque index

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0041  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries and its correlation with the oral hygiene status of 6 to 9-year-old school girls studying indifferent types of schools. Materials and methods: A total of (n = 382) subjects were grouped into 4 clusters according to their school type (group 1-Government School (n = 117), group 2-Holy Quran Memorization Schools (n = 62), group 3-Private School (n = 89) and group 4-Boosting Health (n = 114). A single trained, and calibrated examiner recorded dental caries decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT index) by applying WHO diagnosis criteria. Plaque index and gingival index of the study participants were recorded and compared between the groups. All the data were analyzed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 21. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's correlation tests were applied. Results: Government school students showed higher mean DMFT score (7.21), PI score (1.81) and gingival index score (1.97) followed by other schools. When mean DMFT scores were compared between the four types of schools no significant difference was found (p = 0.39). On the contrary, the study showed significant differences in the mean GI score (p = 0.04) and PI score (p = 0.049) between the four types of schools. DMFT score was found to be significantly correlated with the PI score (r = 0.225, p = 0.000) and GI scores (r = 0.192, p = 0.000). But DMFT did not show any significant correlation with the type of school. Conclusion: This study indicated a high prevalence and severity of dental caries among 6 to 9-year school going female children from Al-Kharj city. Further; it revealed caries experience of the female students is significantly correlated with the plaque deposition on the teeth rather than the type of school. Hence there is a need to implement and evaluate oral health education and promotion programs targeted towards these students.



Priyanka P Madhu, PG Naveen Kumar, GM Prashant, VH Sushanth, Mohamad Imranulla, Arun R Nair

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Tobacco Cessation Methods among the Dental Professionals: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2019] [Month:January-April] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:21 - 26]

Keywords: Dental students, Nicotine replacement therapies, Tobacco cessation

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0042  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: In India, the proportion of death that can be attributed to tobacco use is expected to increase from 1.4% in 1990 to 13.3% in 2020. Health care professionals have made their best attempt by their integrated work to motivate and advise users to quit the habit. Aims and objectives: Assessment of the attitude and practice of the dental students towards tobacco cessation methods and to gather the influence of knowledge in its promotion. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at the College of Dental Sciences in Davangere among the dental professionals, i.e. final year, interns, postgraduates students. The questionnaire was designed to test the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students regarding tobacco use. The self-administered survey included a set of questions. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test had been used to test associations between their responses among age, qualification, and academic year using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 22. Results: A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed, with a response rate of 96.39%. Out of the 250 participants, 54% were females, and 46% were males. About 68% of students were in the age group between 20 to 23 years. About 32.4% were pursuing MDS and 67.6% pursuing BDS in the present study. Almost 50% preferred to recommend nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) as a tobacco cessation advises to the patients, 48% with self quitting practice and 1.2% with pharmacological methods. Discussion: More than half of the respondents had an average level of knowledge on smoking cessation interventions while a majority possessed a positive attitude towards the provision of smoking cessation interventions. Hence it's a need of the hour to influence the students for generating interest in attaining knowledge about tobacco cessation methods.



Oral Bisphosphonate-induced Osteonecrosis of Jaw: A Case Report

[Year:2019] [Month:January-April] [Volume:13] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:27 - 29]

Keywords: Necrotic bone, Necrotic bone hyperbaricoxygen, Osteonecrosis bisphosphonate, Osteonecrosis jaw bisphosphonate

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0043  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Osteonecrosis of bone is a debilitating condition resulting from avascularity of bone. Bisphosphonates which are routinely used in treating bone disorders like osteoporosis and certain malignancies have been associated with increased incidence of osteonecrosis of bone, commonly affecting jaws. Though dental trauma has been a predisposing factor, certain patients have shown spontaneous development of osteonecrosis on long term administration of bisphosphonates.


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