Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

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Volume 15, Number 1, January-April 2021

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Renu Rawat, Gunjan S Aswal, Vinod KR Kumar, Vishwanath Gurumurthy, Soumya Vishwanath, Dinesh F Swamy

A Cross-sectional Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices toward Oral Hygiene among Schoolchildren in Jimma, Ethiopia

[Year:2021] [Month:January-April] [Volume:15] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1 - 6]

Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Oral hygiene, Schoolchildren, Toothbrushing

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0094  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices toward oral hygiene among schoolchildren in Jimma, Ethiopia, using a questionnaire. Materials and methods: For this descriptive study, schoolchildren (n = 580) aged between 14 and 18 years in Jimma, Ethiopia, were included in the study. The data for the study were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was intended to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices toward oral hygiene among these young children. Results: The results were statistically analyzed and the corresponding percentages were calculated. Regarding the knowledge toward oral hygiene, 55.2% of patients believed that oral health had a role in general health, only 16.4% thought irregular toothbrushing can cause tooth decay, only 26.9% opined that brushing properly prevents dental problems, and 26.7% did not know that dentists can clean and polish teeth. Attitude toward oral hygiene showed 92.2% of them had never visited a dentist and 21.4% did not think it is required to visit a dentist. Regarding the practice toward oral hygiene, only 14.13% used toothbrush and toothpaste and 72.41% cleaned using Mefakiya sticks and they change their brush only when the bristles get frayed up. Conclusion: Students lacked awareness about oral health and its relation to general health. The importance of oral health and its maintenance needed to be emphasized. Currently, there is a lack of resources and educational programs on oral health. There is a need for dentists and public health workers to spread awareness among children in this region.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Tarun Nanda, Baljeet Singh, Avijit Avasthi, Abhinav Bhaskar, Sonia Nanda, Karandeep S Arora

Oral Health (KAP Model) Status and Tobacco Habits in Employees’ State Insurance Patients Visiting a Dental College in North India: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2021] [Month:January-April] [Volume:15] [Number:1] [Pages:9] [Pages No:7 - 15]

Keywords: Attitude, Knowledge, Oral health, Questionnaire, Survey

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0091  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Various oral health-related practices, perceptions, and behavioral patterns among the individuals in the society determine the treatment needs to be adopted among the dentists, hospitals, and country as a whole. Objective: To access the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding oral health and tobacco-related products. Design: Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Setting: All patients under Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) empanelment coming to the department from August 2018 to July 2019. Patients: The study consisted of 573 subjects who visited the outpatient department, of which 446 (77.8%) were males and 127 (22.2%) were females. Measurements: A self-prepared questionnaire was asked from the patients and the response rate was recorded and statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests, such as Chi-square and p value to arrive at the results. Results: It was observed that the subjects were maintaining oral health by cleaning their teeth with toothbrush and toothpaste in 549 (95.8%) individuals, changing their brush in >1-month and ≤3-month categories with 270 (50.7%) response. It was also seen that the subjects considered oral health as the mirror of their whole body, i.e., in 89% and 84.4% of the individuals and were ready to go to the dentist (86.9%) in the near future regarding oral prophylaxis. Regarding tobacco habits, males (37.8%) were predominantly using tobacco as compared to females. Limitations: Being a single-centric study of the ESI patients, it does not reflect the overall status of the dental health of this kind of population on a pan-India level. So, more multicentric studies involving a large pool of individuals should be carried out. Conclusion: This study represents the first-of-a-kind information regarding the oral health of the ESI population in our country. More in-depth and larger sample-sized studies are required from other parts of India that could reflect the true oral status of this category of individuals so that treatment plans can be developed accordingly. Key messages: This article tends to formulate the oral hygiene perceptions, outlook, and execution of targeted occupants in an observational manner which can help in removing bottlenecks to reach an optimum level of dental health.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Gejo Johns, Evelyn Sara George

A Method for Prevention of Spread of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in a Dental Clinic

[Year:2021] [Month:January-April] [Volume:15] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:16 - 19]

Keywords: Coronavirus, Hand wash, Sterilization, Universal prevention, Waste disposal

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0095  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study is to give the clinician information related to the prevention of cross-infections in the dental clinic. In a dental office setup, there are high chances of clinician and other noninfected patients to get contaminated by saliva mixed with blood, pus, plaque, and crevicular fluid is often aerosolized and spattered, thus exposing the dental professional to potentially infectious agents mainly the novel coronavirus 2019. Prevention should be made mandatory because microorganisms are always mixed with these body materials and they cause infectious and transmissible disease. In this circumstance, it becomes mandatory for the dental professional to follow the universal precautions and treat every patient safely. Conclusion: The dentist must hence be aware of these precautions and should mandatorily follow the infection control protocol in his dental setup.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Monica Mohanram, Madan PD Kumar

Correlation between CD4 Count and Dental Caries in HIV-seropositive Children Undergoing Antiretroviral Therapy

[Year:2021] [Month:January-April] [Volume:15] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:20 - 23]

Keywords: Cross-sectional study, Dental caries, DMFT, HIV

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0096  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: India has the third-largest HIV epidemic in the world. According to the UNAIDS Gap report 2016, 2.1 million people were living with HIV and approximately 43% of Indian adults with the virus have access to antiretroviral treatment. Even though antiretroviral therapy (ART) use has reduced the prevalence of oral manifestations, there is an increase in the prevalence of dental diseases, mainly due to the chronic influence of some factors involved in the process of HIV infection. Among them are the prolonged use of sugary products, changes in salivary flow, etc. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of CD4 count with dental caries in HIV-seropositive patients receiving ART. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. Demographic details and recent CD4 counts were recorded. For dental caries, the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Pearson correlation was used to correlate CD4 count with dental caries. Results: Caries showed a strong positive correlation of 1.0 but were not found to be statistically significant (p-value = 0.8). Conclusion: The study findings showed that there is a close relationship between oral health and general health in children living with HIV, and it highlights the significance of advocate policies on oral health among children living with HIV.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Chaitali Hambire, Umesh Hambire

Oral Health Care and Treatment Needs in Postmenopausal Women

[Year:2021] [Month:January-April] [Volume:15] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:24 - 29]

Keywords: Menopause, Menopause hormone therapy (MHT), Oral health, Periodontitis, Xerostomia

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0087  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The relationship between oral and general health is bidirectional. During menopause, there is permanent cessation of menstrual cycle with a decrease in female hormonal level. This results in changes in general health, like dryness of the vagina, hot flashes, and dermatological, psychological, and cognitive changes. The oral manifestations include xerostomia, burning mouth syndrome, and periodontal and gingival diseases. The histological similarity between the oral and the vaginal mucosa can explain the similarity in their symptoms. Aims and objectives: To review the literature regarding oral health care and treatment needs of women after menopause and to guide gynecologists, dentists, and general practitioners in the principles of treatment of women with menopause-related oral health issues. Methods: The PubMed, EBSCO, and Cochrane database were searched until June 2020 with keywords like “menopause,” “menopausal problems,” “postmenopausal health issues,” “oral health,” “periodontal problems,” “dental health,” “dental disorders,” “saliva,” “burning mouth syndrome,” “glossodynia,” “xerostomia,”and “menopause hormone therapy (MHT).” Results: Estrogen receptors are present in the periodontium and salivary glands. This may account for increased incidences of periodontal diseases, xerostomia, and burning mouth syndrome in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, as there is a sharp decline in female steroid hormones. Xerostomia and glossodynia were the most common oral symptoms in women during and after menopause. MHT has not shown much effect in reducing oral symptoms. Conclusion: Dentists and gynecologists should work together to help perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in the reduction of their oral health problems and encourage them to maintain good oral hygiene and diet practices. There is a need for randomized controlled trials related to the role of hormone replacement therapy on oral health.

CASE REPORT

Aristotle J Lyssikatos, Jennifer Pumarejo

Implant Management after Loose Cover Screw Causes Purulent Exudate in a Partially Dentate Patient

[Year:2021] [Month:January-April] [Volume:15] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:30 - 32]

Keywords: Cover screw, Dental implant, Fistula, Osseointegration

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0089  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Dental Implants are becoming standard of care to replace missing teeth; however, the ability to manage complications must coincide with this new treatment modality. Our case was a 40-year-old male who was in good general health and wanted to replace his missing tooth with a dental implant. After the successful dental implant surgery, the patient returned for other dental treatment and we noticed a fistula in the area of the dental implant. A radiograph was taken and revealed that the cover screw of the dental implant had loosened causing the fistula. The decision was made to open the site, debride the area, and check osseointegration. We concluded that the body of the implant osseointegrated and we progressed directly to our stage two procedure, thus relieving the complication.

CASE REPORT

Shivani S Desai, Sanika Kulkarni, Jaydeep N Pol, Dipti Patil

Nasopalatine Duct Cyst: A Common Lesion with Uncommon Presentation in a Young Girl

[Year:2021] [Month:January-April] [Volume:15] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:33 - 36]

Keywords: Asymptomatic, Nasopalatine, Nonodontogenic

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0090  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Nasopalatine cysts are the nonodontogenic developmental cysts. These are most frequently occurring asymptomatic cysts in the oral cavity and are commonly observed as a swelling in the anterior maxillary region. Nasopalatine duct cyst presents in the fourth to sixth decades of life with a male predilection. The main aim of this case study is to review the prevalence, epidemiology, and clinical presentation, to describe the radiographic and pathological findings, and to discuss surgical management of this entity in an 11-year-old female patient.

CASE REPORT

Chandira Gunasena, Gamini Nawarathne, Ananda Rathnayake, Chandima Weerasinghe

Case Report of Idiopathic Sialectasis of Stensen's Duct and Literature Review

[Year:2021] [Month:January-April] [Volume:15] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:37 - 40]

Keywords: Case report, Idiopathic, Sialectasis, Stensen\'s duct

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0092  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

This paper discusses a case of idiopathic sialectasis of the Stensen\'s duct in a 51-year-old male patient diagnosed and managed successfully. Idiopathic sialectasis is a rare presentation. Diagnosis of this entity is by clinical, radiological, and ultrasonological correlation. The literature on this entity is scarce, so this paper intends to provide a literature review and analysis into the epidemiology and management aspects.

SURVEY

Noor Nassif, Rana Abunemer, Reem Ali, Bushra Sunbali, Sara AlShammaery

Career Satisfaction among Specialist Dental Practitioners in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2021] [Month:January-April] [Volume:15] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:41 - 43]

Keywords: Career satisfaction, Dental practitioner, Patient attitude, Work environment, Work–life balance

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0093  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To ascertain empirically the level of career satisfaction and the factors affecting it to achieve a work–life balance. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental specialists in Saudi Arabia, using a 25-item online survey questionnaire through emails, social media, and direct interview technique. The questionnaire included factors that measure the job satisfaction in dentistry, like working hours per day, work–life balance, income level, environment of workplace, self-improvement, attitude, and respect from the patient and the society. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Of 315 respondents, the majority were Saudis (68.6%) and males (72.7%). Most of them were satisfied with their work–life balance (63.2%). Almost half of the respondents were satisfied with their current workplace and the opportunities they were offered. Further analysis revealed that most of the respondents will not change their specialty (67.7%) and would recommend their specialty to senior dental students (74.6%). Conclusion: This study showed an acceptable level of satisfaction in almost every aspect (environmentally, psychologically, physically, financially, socially, and personally), great outcomes, and job performance. Nevertheless, some dissatisfaction was identified in the work environment which had a great effect on the overall satisfaction including the availability of materials, the continuous progression in learning and career development, salary, and top officials.

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