Journal of Oral Health and Community Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2021 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

COVID-19 Crisis and Precautions in Dental Practice: A Review Report

Payal Kansara, Tikal Kansara, Arjun K Kini, Bapanaiah Penugonda

Keywords : Coronavirus, COVID-19, Dental clinic/lab, Dental practice, Dentistry, Infection control, Precautions against COVID-19, Virology

Citation Information : Kansara P, Kansara T, Kini AK, Penugonda B. COVID-19 Crisis and Precautions in Dental Practice: A Review Report. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2021; 15 (2):78-83.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10062-0098

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 26-10-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Background: In December 2019, a new deadly, highly contagious virus, namely coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbroke in Wuhan city, China, from wildlife trading and consumption. Till mid-February, the virus spread to almost all continents of the world with a death toll in the 1000s. As this novel coronavirus lacked specific treatment, the focus was directed on prevention. Types of studies reviewed: As COVID-19 was new to the world, all the available literature including original articles, case reports, World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control recommendations, and various other government and nongovernment institute guidelines were reviewed to make this report. Results: Even though dental procedures have the highest chance of transmission, there are lacked recommendations on precautions and preventing the spread of this deadly virus in dental practice. After analyzing the above available literature, we outlined recommendations on the specific cohort of patients to provide dental treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we also outlined the proper use of personal protective equipment, infection control in dental practice, and a special focus on treatment during and after the COVID-19 pandemics. Dental implications: With proper knowledge and understanding of prevention in a dental setup, the chances of cross infection can be substantially reduced.


PDF Share
  1. Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: the mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol 2020;92(4):401–402. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25678.
  2. WHO Director-General's remarks at the media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11 February 2020. World Health Organization. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-2019-ncov-on-11-february-2020 [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  3. Cheng ZJ, Shan JJ. 2019 novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know. Infection 2020;48(2):155–163. DOI: 10.1007/s15010-020-01401-y.
  4. Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses – a statement of the Coronavirus study group. Nat Microbiol 2020;5:536–544. DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.07.937862.
  5. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. J Am Med Assoc 2020;323(13):1239–1242. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.2648.
  6. Choe YJ, Choi EH. Are we ready for coronavirus disease 2019 arriving at schools? J Korean Med Sci 2020;35(11):e127. DOI: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e127.
  7. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) situation reports-75. World Health Organization. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports [Accessed April 4, 2020].
  8. Yu P, Zhu J, Zhang Z, et al. A familial cluster of infection associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating possible person-to-person transmission during the incubation period. J Infect Dis 2020;221(11):1757–1761. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa077.
  9. Holshue ML, Doremalen Nvan, Fauci AS, et al. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States: NEJM. N Engl J Med 2020;382:929–936. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191. Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2001191 [Accessed April 5, 2020].
  10. Liu K, Fang Y-Y, Deng Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei province. Chin Med J 2020;133(9):1025–1031. DOI: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000744.
  11. Coronavirus (COVID-19). National Institutes of Health. 2020. Available from: https://www.nih.gov/health-information/coronavirus [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  12. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when COVID-19 is suspected. World Health Organization. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail/clinical-management-of-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-is-suspected [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  13. Chaux-Bodard AG, Deneuve S, Desoutter A. Oral manifestation of Covid-19 as an inaugural symptom. J Oral Med Oral Surg 2020;26(2);18. DOI: 10.1051/mbcb/2020011.
  14. Khurshid Z, Asiri FYI, Wadaani HA. Human saliva: non-invasive fluid for detecting novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17(7):2225. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17072225.
  15. Sabino-Silva R, Jardim ACG, Siqueira WL. Coronavirus COVID-19 impacts to dentistry and potential salivary diagnosis. Clin Oral Investig 2020;24(4):1619–1621. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-020-03248-x.
  16. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020;382:727–733. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017. Available from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017 [Accessed April 5, 2020].
  17. Silva-Boghossian CM, Colombo APV, Tanaka M, et al. Quantitative proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid in different periodontal conditions. PLoS One 2013;8(10):e75898. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075898.
  18. Peng X, Xu X, Li Y, et al. Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice. Int J Oral Sci 2020;12(1):9. DOI: 10.1038/s41368-020-0075-9.
  19. Update and interim guidance on outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus. Available from: https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00427.asp [Accessed July 6, 2020].
  20. Gorman J. The coronavirus, by the numbers. The New York Times. 2020. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/05/health/coronavirus-deaths-rates.html [Accessed April 5, 2020].
  21. Xu H, Zhong L, Deng J, et al. High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa. Int J Oral Sci 2020;12(1):8. DOI: 10.1038/s41368-020-0074-x.
  22. Li X, Duan G, Zhang W, et al. A furin cleavage site was discovered in the S protein of the Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus. 2020. Available from: www.chinaxiv.org/abs/202002.00004.
  23. Izaguirre G. The proteolytic regulation of virus cell entry by furin and other proprotein convertases. Viruses 2019;11(9):837. DOI: 10.3390/v11090837.
  24. Lopez de Cicco R, Watson JC, Bassi DE, et al. Simultaneous expression of furin and vascular endothelial growth factor in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma progression. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10(13):4480–4488. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-03-0670.
  25. Cleveland JL, Gray SK, Harte JA, et al. Transmission of blood-borne pathogens in US dental health care settings. J Am Dent Assoc 2016;147(9):729–738. DOI: 10.1016/j.adaj.2016.03.020.
  26. Dhama K, Sharun K, Tiwari R, et al. COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection: advances and prospects in designing and developing vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and therapeutics. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020;16(6):1232–1238. DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2020.1735227.
  27. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020. DOI: 10.1101/2020.03.09.20033217.
  28. ADA releases coronavirus handout for dentists based on CDC guidelines. Available from: https://www.ada.org/en/publications/ada-news/2020-archive/february/ada-releases-coronavirus-handout-for-dentists-based-on-cdc-guidelines [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  29. How to protect yourself from COVID-19. Coronavirus. Available from: https://coronavirus.dc.gov/page/how-protect-yourself-covid-19 [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  30. Handbook of COVID-19 prevention and treatment: the first affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Complied according to clinical experience. Hangzhou, China: First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; 2020.
  31. National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Technical guide for prevention and control of new coronavirus infection in medical institutions (Second Edition) (2020-01-22). 2020. Available from: https://sudanjem.com/2020/04/protocol-on-prevention-and-control-ofnovel-coronavirus-pneumonia/ [Accessed 2 April 2020].
  32. General Office of National Health Commission. Guidelines for the use of common medical protective products in the prevention and control of pneumonia due to new Coronavirus (Trial). Nhc.Gov.Cn, General Office of National Health Commission. 2020. Available from: www.nhc.gov.cn/yzygj/s7659/202001/e71c5de925a64eafbe.
  33. Williams L. The 2019 novel coronavirus and the practice of dentistry. AGD. 2020. Available from: https://www.agd.org/publications-and-news/agd-news-details/2020/02/12/the-novel-coronavirus-and-the-practice-of-dentistry [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  34. Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for COVID-19. Available from: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3990.pdf [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  35. China Law Translate. New coronavirus pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan. China law translate. 2020. Available from: https://www.chinalawtranslate.com/en/coronavirus-treatment-plan-7/ [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  36. Spagnuolo G, Vito DD, Rengo S, et al. COVID-19 outbreak: an overview on dentistry. Int J Env Res Public Health 2020;17(6):2094. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17062094.
  37. Meng L, Hua F, Bian Z. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and future challenges for dental and oral medicine. J Dent Res 2020;99(5):481–487. DOI: 10.1177/0022034520914246.
  38. ADA calls upon dentists to postpone elective procedures. Available from: https://www.ada.org/en/press-room/news-releases/2020-archives/march/ada-calls-upon-dentists-to-postpone-elective-procedures [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  39. Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. Available from: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/ [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  40. Ather A, Patel B, Ruparel NB, et al. Coronavirus disease (COVID 19): implications for clinical dental care. J Endod 2020;46(5):584–595. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2020.03.008.
  41. ADA develops guidance on dental emergency, nonemergency care. Available from: https://www.ada.org/en/publications/ada-news/2020-archive/march/ada-develops-guidance-on-dental-emergency-nonemergency-care [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  42. COVID-19. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 2020. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19-pandemic [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  43. Thivichon-Prince B, Barsotti O, Girard R, et al. Hand hygiene practices in a dental teaching center: measures and improve. Eur J Dent 2014;8(4):481–486. DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.143629.
  44. Ellingson K. Hand hygiene promotion from the US perspective: putting WHO and CDC guidelines into practice. Hand Hygiene 2017:221–229. DOI: 10.1002/9781118846810.CH32.
  45. Kwok YLA, Gralton J, Mclaws M-L. Face touching: a frequent habit that has implications for hand hygiene. Am J Infect Control 2015;43(2):112–114. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2014.10.015.
  46. List N: disinfectants for use against SARS-CoV-2. EPA. 2020. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-registration/list-n-disinfectants-use-against-sars-cov-2 [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  47. Kadi AA, Salati SA. Hand hygiene practices among medical students. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2012;2012:1–6. DOI: 10.1155/2012/679129.
  48. Harrel SK, Molinari J. Aerosols and splatter in dentistry. J Am Dent Assoc 2004;135(4):429–437. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2004.0207.
  49. Harte JA. Standard and transmission-based precautions. J Am Dent Assoc 2010;141(5):572–581. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2010.0232.
  50. Samaranayake LP, Peiris M. Severe acute respiratory syndrome and dentistry: a retrospective view. J Am Dent Assoc 2004;135(9):1292–1302. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2004.0405.
  51. Dahlke WO, Cottam MR, Herring MC, et al. Evaluation of the spatter-reduction effectiveness of two dry-field isolation techniques. J Am Dent Assoc 2012;143(11):1199–1204. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2012.0064.
  52. Marui VC, Souto MLS, Rovai ES, et al. Efficacy of preprocedural mouth rinses in the reduction of microorganisms in aerosol. J Am Dent Assoc 2019;150(12):1015–1026.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.adaj.2019.06.024.
  53. Eggers M, Koburger-Janssen T, Eickmann M, et al. In vitro bactericidal and virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine gargle/mouthwash against respiratory and oral tract pathogens. Infect Dis Ther 2018;7(2):249–259. DOI: 10.1007/s40121-018-0200-7.
  54. Live updates: coronavirus and dentistry. British Dental Association. Available from: https://bda.org/advice/Coronavirus/Pages/latest-updates.aspx [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  55. Ather B, Edemekong PF. Airborne precautions. 2020. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
  56. Klyn SL, Cummings DE, Richardson BW, et al. Reduction of bacteria-containing spray produced during ultrasonic scaling. Gen Dent 2001;49(6):648–652.
  57. Panov V, Borisova-Papancheva T. Application of ultraviolet light (UV) in dental medicine. J Med Dent Practice 2015;2(2):194–200. DOI: 10.18044/MedInform.201522.194.
  58. Guidelines for infection control in dental health-care. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5217.pdf [Accessed April 2, 2020].
  59. Mariño R, Ghanim A. Teledentistry: a systematic review of the literature. J Telemed Telecare 2013;19(4):179–183. DOI: 10.1177/1357633x13479704.
  60. ADA COVID-19 coding and billing guidance. Available from: https://success.ada.org/~/media/CPS/Files/COVID/ADA_COVID_Coding_and_Billing_Guidance.pdf?_ga=2.227528157.1908509749.1585250053-1025016649.1585250053 [Accessed April 2, 2020].
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.