Association of 2D:4D Ratio (Hormonal Fingerprints) with Dental Caries and Malocclusion among 18–25-year-old Dental Students
Shilpi Garg, Preety Gupta
Caries, Hormonal fingerprints, Malocclusion, Second digit to fourth digit ratio
Citation Information :
Garg S, Gupta P. Association of 2D:4D Ratio (Hormonal Fingerprints) with Dental Caries and Malocclusion among 18–25-year-old Dental Students. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2022; 16 (2):73-76.
Objective: The goal was to discover the association of hormonal fingerprints with dental caries and malocclusion in our study.
Methodology: A total of 200 dental college students of the age-group of 18–25 years were randomly selected. The hormonal fingerprint was created by using a Vernier caliper to measure the length of the index and ring fingers and determine their ratio. Standard mouth mirrors and community periodontal index (CPI) probes were used to assess caries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) assessment form, 2013, the sum of the number of Decayed, Missing due to caries, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) in the permanent teeth index was used to assess caries. Malocclusion was assessed by using the dental esthetic index. For statistical analysis, SPSS software was utilized.
Results: According to the findings, the majority of study subjects had a second digit to fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio of <1. Prevalence of malocclusion was observed to be increasing with an increase in 2D:4D ratio. Caries occurrence was also found to increase with an increase in malocclusion.
Conclusion: Our study confirms that hormonal fingerprints can be used as an early predictor for dental caries and malocclusion.
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Biomarker_(medicine) &oldid=1028800620 as seen on 23.10.21.
Richard Mayeux. Biomarkers: Potential uses and limitations. NeuroRx 2004;1(2):182–188. DOI: 10.1602/neurorx.1.2.182.
Strimbu K, Tavel JA. What are biomarkers. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2010;5(6):463–466. DOI: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32833ed177.
Buzalaf MAR, de Cassia Ortiz A, Carvalho TS, et al. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for dental caries, periodontal diseases or cancer: Is there a need for more Biomarkers? Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2020;20(5):543–555. DOI: 10.1080/14737159.2020.1743686.
Priyanka GND, Prasad MG, Radhakrishna AN, et al. The hormonal fingerprints and BMI: Implications for risk factors in dental caries and malocclusion. J Clin and Diagn Res 2016;10(8):ZC06–ZC09. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/18197.8223.
Jeevanandam S, Muthu PK. 2D:4D ratio and its implications in medicine. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10(12):CM01–CM03. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/21952.9000.
Gaikwad SS, Gheware A, Kamatagi L, et al. Dental caries and its relationship to malocclusion in permanent dentition among 12–15-year-old school going children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(5): 27–30. PMCID: PMC4229825.
World Health Organization. Global Data on Dental Caries Prevalence (DMFT) in children aged 12 years. Global Oral Data Bank. Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme, Management of Noncommunicable Diseases. Geneva; 2000. WHO/NMH/MNC/ORH/Caries.12y.00.3.
Houston WJB, Stephens CD, Tulley WJ. A Textbook of Orthodontics. Great Britain: Wright; 1992. pp. 1–13.
Manning J, Kilduff L, Cook C, et al. Digit ratio (2D:4D): A biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2014;5:9. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2014.00009.
Brown W, Hines M, Fane B, et al. Masculinized finger length patterns in human males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Horm Behav 2002;42(4):380–386. DOI: 10.1006/hbeh.2002.1830.
Lutchmaya S, Baron-Cohen S, Raggatt P, et al. 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Hum Dev 2004;77(1–2):23–28. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2003.12.002.
Bloom MS, Houston AS, Mills JL, et al. Finger bone immaturity and 2D:4D ratio measurement error in the assessment of the hyperandrogenic hypothesis for the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. Physiol Behav 2010;100(3):221–224. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.01.005.
Verma P, Hegde AM, Narayanacharyulu R. Hormonal fingerprints: A key to early diagnosis of caries. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24(6):674–677. DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.127607.
Lakshmi CR, Radhika D, Prabhat M, et al. Association between genetic taste sensitivity, 2D:4D ratio, dental caries prevalence, and salivary flow rate in 6-14-year-old children: A cross-sectional study. J Dent Res, Dent Clin, Dent Prospects 2016;10(3):142–147. DOI: 10.15171/joddd.2016.023.
Premkumar S, Gurumurthy B. Assessment of 2D:4D in subjects with anteroposterior mandibular dysplasia. J Contem dent. Practice 2013;14(4):582–585. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1367.
Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F, Asgari I. Association between orthodontic treatment need and caries experience. Acta Odontol Scand 2010;69(1):2–11. DOI: 10.3109/00016357.2010.516732.