Age, Body height, Body weight, Children, Gender, Mouth
Citation Information :
Gulia J, Hooda A, Kumar A, Agarwal D. Measurement and Evaluation of the Normal Range of Maximal Mouth Opening and Its Correlation with Age, Body Height, Weight, and Gender in the Young Indian Population. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2018; 12 (1):14-19.
Aim: To measure and evaluate the normal range of maximal mouth opening (MMO) in young children aged 3 to 12 years from Indian population and to examine the possible influence of age, gender, height, and body weight on MMO.
Materials and methods: The assessment of MMO is accomplished with a modified Vernier caliper by measuring the distance between the incisal edge of upper and lower incisor during MMO up to the painless limit. Participants of the study were healthy children selected among regular students from local schools. Age, gender, height, and body weight of each child were also recorded at the same time.
Results: The results of the present study revealed that MMO in Indian children was 41.61, 44.9, and 46.81 mm for boys and 40.09, 44.22, and 46.2 mm for girls at age of 3, 4, and 5 years respectively. In mixed dentition, the MMO in Indian children was 46.04, 48.53, and 52.38 mm for boys and 45.95, 47.27, and 52.05 mm for girls at age groups of 6 to 8, 8 to 10, and 10 to 12 years respectively. Further significant associations were noted between age, height, body weight, and MMO. However, no gender difference was observed.
Conclusion: A definite relationship exists between MMO, age, height, and body weight in Indian children with primary dentition as well as in mixed dentition.
Miller VJ, Bookhan V, Brummer D, Singh JC. A mouth opening index for patients with temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Rehabil 1999 Jun;26(6):534-537.
Dworkin SF, LeResche L, DeRouen T, Von Korff M. Assessing clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders: reliability of clinical examiners. J Prosthet Dent 1990 May;63(5):574-579.
Nevakari K. “Elapsio praearticularis” of the temporomandibular joint. A pantomographic study of the so-called physiological subluxation. Acta Odontol Scand 1960;18(2):123-170.
Sheppard IM, Sheppard SM. Maximal incisal opening: a diagnostic index? J Dent Med 1965 Jan;20:13-15.
Ingervall B. Range of movement of mandible in children. Scand J Dent Res 1970 Aug;78(4):311-322.
Agerberg G. Maximal mandibular movements in young men and women. Sven Tandlak Tidskr 1974 Mar;67(2):81-100.
Bernal M, Tsamtsouris A. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in 3 to 5 year old children. J Pedod 1986 Winter;10(2):127-140.
Gaviao MBD, Chelotti A, Silva FA. Análise funcional da oclusão decídua: avaliação dos movimentos mandibulares. Rev Odontol Univ São Paulo 1997;11(1):61-69.
Rothenberg L. An analysis of maximum mandibular movements, craniofacial relationship and temporomandibular joint wariness in children. Angle Orthod 1991;61(2):103-112.
Alamoudi N, Farsi N, Salako NO, Feteih R. Temporomandibular disorders among school children. J Clin Pediat Dent 1998 Summer;22(4):323-329.
Muhtarogullari M, Demirel F, Saygili G. Temporomandibular disorders in Turkish children with mixed and primary dentition: prevalence of signs and symptoms. Turk J Pediatr 2004 Apr-Jun;46(2):159-163.
Cortese SG, Oliver LM, Biondi AM. Determination of range of mandibular movements in children without temporomandibular disorders. J Craniomandib Pract 2007 Jul;25(3):200-205.
Vanderas AP. Mandibular movements and their relationship to age and body height in children with or without clinical signs of craniomandibular dysfunction: Part IV. A comparative study. ASDC J Dent Child 1992 Sep-Oct;59(5):338-341.
Landtwing K. Evaluation of the normal range of vertical mandibular opening in children and adolescents with special reference to age and stature. J Maxillofac Surg 1978 Aug;6(3):157-162.
Mezitis M, Rallis G, Zachariades N. The normal range of mouth opening. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1989 Oct;47(10): 1028-1029.
Wood GD, Branco JA. A comparison of three methods of measuring maximal opening of the mouth. J Oral Surg 1979 Mar;37(3):175-177.
Bonjardim LR, Gavião MB, Pereira LJ, Castelo PM. Mandibular movements in children with and without signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. J Appl Oral Sci 2004 Mar;12(1):39-44.
Eriksson PO, Haggman-Henrikson B, Nordh E, Zafar H. Coordinated mandibular and head-neck movements during rhythmic jaw activities in man. J Dent Res 2000 Jun;79(6): 1378-1384.
Visscher CM, Huddleston-Slater JJ, Lobbezoo F, Naeije M. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures. J Oral Rehabil 2000 Apr;27(4):299-305.
Higbie EJ, Seidel-Cobb D, Taylor LF, Cummings GS. Effect of head position on vertical mandibular opening. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1999 Feb;29(2):127-130.
Hirsch C, John MT, Lautenschlager C, List T. Mandibular jaw movement capacity in 10–17-yr-old children and adolescents: normative values and the influence of gender, age, and temporomandibular disorders. Eur J Oral Sci 2006 Dec;114(6): 465-470.
Abou-Atme YS, Chedid N, Melis M, Zawawi KH. Clinical measurement of normal maximal mouth opening in children. Cranio 2008 Jul;26(3):191-196.
Sousa LM, Nagamine LM, Chaves TC, Grossi DB, Regalo SC, Oliveira AS. Evaluation of mandibular range of motion in Brazilian children and its correlation to age, height, weight, and gender. Braz Oral Res 2008 Jan-Mar;22(1):61-66.
Ogura T, Morinushi T, Ohno H, Sumi K, Hatada K. An epidemiological study of TMJ dysfunction syndrome in adolescents. J Pedod 1985 Fall;10(1):22-35.
Gazit E, Lieberman M, Eini R, Hirsch N, Serfaty V, Fuchs C, Lilos P. Prevalence of mandibular dysfunction in 10–18 year old Israeli school children. J Oral Rehabil 1984 Jul;11(4): 307-317.
Reicheneder C, Kardari Z, Proff P, Fanghaenel J, Faltermeier A, Römer P. Correlation of condylar kinematics in children with gender, facial type and weight. Ann Anat 2013 May;195(3): 243-247.
Zawawi KH, Al-Badawi EA, Lobo SL, Melis M, Mehta NR. An index for the measurement of normal maximum mouth opening. J Can Dent Assoc 2003 Dec;69(11):737-741.
Westling L, Helkimo E. Maximum jaw opening capacity in adolescents in relation to general joint mobility. J Oral Rehabil 1992 Sep;19(5):485-494.
Dijkstra PU, de Bont LG, Stegenga B, Boering G. Angle of mouth opening measurement: reliability of a technique for temporomandibular joint mobility assessment. J Oral Rehabil 1995 Apr;22(4):263-268.
Henrikson T, Nilner M, Kurol J. Signs of temporomandibular disorders in girls receiving orthodontic treatment. A prospective and longitudinal comparison with untreated Class II malocclusions and normal occlusion subjects. Eur J Orthod 2000 Jun;22(3):271-281.